واکاوی چالش‌های جغرافیایی ظهور دموکراسی در خاورمیانه

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه یزد

2 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

در چند دهة اخیر، تحقق نظام حکومتی لیبرال سرمایه‌داری در منطقة خاورمیانه، با فراز و نشیب‌های بسیاری همراه بود. از طرفی همواره درمورد امکان تحقق دموکراسی غربی در خاورمیانه، بحث‌های زیادی مطرح شده است. در سال‌های اخیر نیز چالش‌های مربوط به ظهور مفهوم دموکراسی در بسیاری از کشورها و حکومت‌های خاورمیانه مشاهده می­شود. در این راستا، بعضی از اندیشمندان معتقدند ظهور دموکراسی از نوع حاکم در جهان غرب، در منطقة خاورمیانه امکان­ناپذیر است. این دسته از اندیشمندان، اغلب تضاد فرهنگی تمدنی منطقة خاورمیانه با غرب را دلیل عمدة این مسئله می‌دانند. به­عبارت دیگر، جبر فرهنگی‌– هویتی این منطقه را دلیل عمدة کندبودن روند دموکراسی در خاورمیانه تلقی می‌کنند. در این پژوهش، با فرض قبول این تعارض و برای بررسی علل آن، به کالبد جغرافیای طبیعی و ویژگی‌های جغرافیای انسانی منطقة خاورمیانه نگاه دقیق‌تری می­شود تا علل بنیادین امکان­ناپذیربودن تحقق مدل لیبرال سرمایه‌داری از نوع غربی در این منطقه مشخص شود. در این زمینه با اتکا به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، دلایل بنیادین این مسئله- که منتج از ویژگی‌های جغرافیای انسانی و طبیعی این منطقه است- بررسی می­شود. فرضیة این پژوهش آن است که توسعة سیاسی و بسط دموکراسی از نوع غربی در خاورمیانه به­دلیل ویژگی‌های خاص طبیعی و انسانی این منطقه، هیچ‌گاه به­طور کامل تحقق نمی‌یابد و نهادینه­شدن فرایند تأثیرگذاری مردم در حکومت، نیازمند مدل‌های دیگری است که با زیرساخت‌های طبیعی و انسانی منطقه مطابقت داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explanation of the Geographical Challenges of Democracy in the Middle East

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ehsan Lashgari Tafreshi 1
  • Seyed Abbas Ahmadi 2
1 Assistance Professor of Political Geography, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Political Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Establishment of liberal state democratic structure in the Middle East had been faced with up and down in this area during recent decades. This issue had been come up consistently with serious discussion about probability of democratic system accomplishment in this region. Hence, some of political experts believe that democratic thoughts could be spread in the entire world and states of Middle East should consistently joint to this ruling system. This is because democratic ideas have efficiency and global performance in all of the world and in all of the societies. Another group of political scientists believe that democratic system accomplishment could not be installed in Middle East. The reason for this is that the ruling thoughts and dominant doctrines in this region are obstacle for establishment of the democratic system. In other words, human situations of this region do not prepare that for democratic state. On other side, in political geography this issue could be checked by view of political geography? Other groups of political sciences believe that democratic system accomplishment in Middle East could not be installed.
 
Methodology
This paper seeks to answer the question: “what human and physical geographical factors impede stablishment of the progressive democratic states in the middle east?” To answer this question, we have used descriptive- analytical methods and with valid bibliography. It was struggled that geographical factors are extracted as basic source of this issues. In other words, in this paper it has been attempted to answer this problem that why centralization structure of state were developed in this region. Thus, with acceptation of the contradiction between Middle East political cultures and democratic thoughts as hypothesis in this article, it was also struggled that this topic checked geographical approach. For description of these issues, they have been studied by the human and natural geographical conditions of Middle East. The issues have posed new outlooks for causing this issue. In this paper, the main question is that” is there any relation between geographical situations in the Middle East with progress democracy?”
 
Results and Discussion
In an overview, the main constraints of democracy making and important factors of centralization and totalities in the Middle East are:
1. Ethnic diversity in the state of this region is very high. Thus, there has been much potential for conflict and confrontation in the region's countries over the past decade. Obviously, totalitarian regimes are better able for overcoming to ethnic divisions. Therefore, this ensures that the desire of concentration of power is increased in these areas. On other side, biological foundations of scattering in this region are not fair. Therefore, centralized state can only provide equitable access for all people fairly. In other words, natural resources and fossil fuels are not equal in across the country.
2. In this region, one of the crucial elements influencing the political features of the state and society are religion. Obviously, the advent of Islam in the Middle East has been profound impact on the objective features of the government, and society in this region. Obviously, Islam is less adapted with the principles of democracy and liberalism. Thus, this issue is another human obstacle of democratic state emergence in this region. Obviously, since the advent of Islam in the Middle East, profound impact of religion on the objective features of the government and society was observed in this region. Obviously, Islam is less adapted with the principles of democracy and liberalism. Thus, this issue is another obstacle for emergence of democratic state in this region. Therefore, it is clear that Islamic thought does not really match with democracy. In a democracy, all citizens should have equal rights together, while in Islam there are not equal rights between men and women, scholars and imitators, and between Muslims and non-Muslims.
3. In most developed countries, the bulk of tax revenue comes from the state budget. In some countries, even in the top 80% revenue is earned from taxes. But in most states in the Middle East, more than 50% of government revenue is earned directly from the sale of oil and oil-related derivatives and other sources of oil product and single-product. However, in most state in the Middle East, more than 50% of government revenue is earned directly from the sale of oil and oil-related derivatives and other sources of oil product and single-products. Therefore, the states with relatively large revenues from the sale of fossil fuels and single-products, determine its own national strategic objective
 
Conclusion
As mentioned, human and physical geographical structures and infrastructure play very effective role in political ideas of any state in this region. This is because democratic ideas have efficient global performance in entire the world and in all the societies. Another group of political scientists believe that democratic system accomplishment in Middle East could not be installed. Finding research reveal that determinate human and natural geographical condition in this region is the biggest obstacle to establish democratic system.
Thus, in the Middle East, there are much historical evidence that indicate a large influence of geographical environment on the structure and functions of states and the government, particularly in this region. The bulk of tax revenue comes from the state budget. In some countries, even in the top 80 percent revenue earnings are from taxes. But in most state in the Middle East, more than 50 percent of government revenue is earned directly from the sale of oil and oil-related derivatives and other sources of oil product and single-product. Therefore, the states with relatively large revenues from the sale of fossil fuels and single-products determine their own national strategic objective in development and implementation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • concentration
  • Democracy
  • Geographical area
  • Governance system
  • Middle East

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