تحلیل تأثیر کاربری اراضی در پایداری محله‌های شهری (مطالعۀ موردی: محله‌های ناحیۀ 1 منطقۀ 14 تهران)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

فرایند شهرنشینی پدیده‌ای جهانی است که در سراسر جهان و هرجا که انسان ساکن است واقع می‌شود که در کشورهای درحال‌توسعه با رشد طبیعی جمعیت، مهاجرت روستاییان به شهر، تقارب در سبک زندگی روستایی و شهری و فرایندهای سیاسی و اقتصادی در ارتباط با جهانی‌شدن همراه است. شهرنشینی سریع اغلب به شیوة استفاده از زمین منجر می‌شود که بی‌اعتنا به نیازهای نسل آینده است و موجب ناپایداری شهری می‌شود. توسعة پایدار و برنامه‌ریزی کاربری اراضی مفاهیم ارزشمندی هستند، اما چالش اصلی زمانی به‌وجود می‌آید که می‌خواهیم آن‌ها را در عمل قرار دهیم که برای این منظور از مدل DCA استفاده کرده‌ایم. روش پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی است و شاخص‌های عملکردی مدل DCA در محله‌های ناحیة 1 منطقة 14 شهر تهران سنجیده شده است. نتایج این پژوهش پس از سنجش سه شاخص تغییر، اختلاط و تعدد کاربری اراضی نشان می‌دهد محله‌های شمالی محدودة مدنظر با تغییر کاربری اراضی در راستای پایداری، اختلاط و تعدد کاربری بیشتر، در مقایسه با دیگر محله‌های ناحیه پایدارتر بوده است. همچنین می‌توان نتیجه گرفت استفاده از مدل DCA با هدف برنامه‌ریزی کاربری اراضی پایدار، به‌دلیل قابلیت این مدل در تجزیة مسائل کلان و ترکیب مسائل با ابعاد متفاوت، مناسب بوده است. در این راستا طرح‌های شهری باید با درنظرگرفتن پایداری کاربری اراضی با معیارهای بیان‌شده در سطح محله‌ها به تحقق آرمان محله‌محوری که از اهداف پایداری شهری است، یاری برسانند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the Effects of Land Use on the Stability of Urban Neighborhoods (Case Study: Region 1 District 14, Tehran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Meshkini 1
  • Kazem Borhani 2
  • Reza Shabanzade Namini 2
1 Assistant professor of Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD candidate in geography and urban planning, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Urbanization is a global phenomenon with substantial effects on different aspects of human society. The urban population of world is increased from 200 million in 1900 to about 2.9 billion in 2000 and estimated about 5 billion by 2030. In developing countries, urbanization is associated with globalization through natural population growth, rural-urban migration, lifestyle convergence. While urbanization is a major challenge in sustainable development in social, economic and environmental aspects, many studies were conducted about urban systems in the past years. Urbanization can upgrade rapid socio-economic development and, at the same time, lead to many problems including high population density, heavy traffic, lack of housing, degradation of resources, loss of biodiversity, heat islands of, noise, water and air pollution. Today urban sustainable development with different aspects has been a major challenge. Urbanization growth show significant changes in land use method. To have a sustainable urban development, land use planning must meet current and future needs of citizens together. Urban management that considers just the demands of today citizens, land use change, and without compromising the needs of future generations, is not competent. Most cities in developing countries do not have the resources to effectively manage their land, while some governments have tried to balance socio-economic development and environmental issues, but the evidence shows that such efforts have not been effective. Sustainable development and land use planning concepts are valuable, but the real challenge comes when we want to put them in practice. Having a comprehensive framework can help make better decisions in personal, business or political issues. Thus, considering the information presented can provide a sustainable development model that can accurately show the effects of changes in land use in urban sustainability. The purpose of this article is to apply DCA (analysis and decision) in urban land use planning, using four indicators including land use change (LUC), LUM and HHI indices.  Thanks to the abilities of Geographic Information System (GIS) can analyze spatial criteria within the study area, region 1 in municipal district number 14, Tehran, Iran.
 
Methodology
This study combines descriptive and analytical methods to address the influence of urban land use changes in sustainable urban development. After explaining the circumstances and causes of the problem, we have determined the indicators in this study. Three indicators of performance changes in land use, land-use mix and diversity of land use performance indicators are considered in this study. Finally, the status quo is presented in placement decisions. In this study, we have analyzed land use maps of the area under study in order to investigate changes in land use in the years 1996 and 2006 in the study area. Purpose of this study is to assess the impacts of land use changes in urban sustainability and incorporate land use in the area using LUM and HHI indices. We try to measure the incorporation index of land use degree to which land use activities have been separated from each other. DCA model indicators have been measured in the neighborhood 1, District 14 of Tehran. The purpose of this model is to express objective conditions and performance indicators. Performance indices are including changes in land use, land-use mix and diversity of land use performance. Finally, the decisions of the status quo alternatives have been proposed.
 
Results and discussion 
The results have indicated that northern regions of the study area were more stable as they have more land use change and mixing. Many urban elements are physically effective in urban sustainability, according to the concept of urban sustainability indices in natural, economic, political, social aspects.
 
Conclusion
It can be concluded that use of DCA model aimed at sustainable land use planning was properly in the analysis of macro issues and the problems combined with different sizes. In this context, urban design must consider the land use sustainability criteria to the ideals expressed in the neighborhood at the community level to achieve aspirations of the central neighborhoods of urban sustainability objectives.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • urban sustainability
  • sustainable land use
  • DCA model
  • neighborhoods region 1
  • District 14 of Tehran
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