نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 کارشناس ارشد سنجش از دور و GIS دانشکدة علوم، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز
2 کارشناس ارشد ارزیابی و آمایش سرزمین دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی خاتمالانبیاء بهبهان
3 استادیار گروه محیطزیست دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی خاتمالانبیاء بهبهان
4 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جنگلداری و اکولوژی جنگل دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی خاتمالانبیاء بهبهان
عنوان مقاله [English]
The world today is facing with the crisis of resource destruction. Optimal utilization of natural resources and regulation of land use based on their ecological potential has important role in environmental management and prevent their destruction in order to sustainable development. Assessment of ecological potential as the core of environmental studies provides a good platform for environmental planning. In this field, geographic information system with high capacity in the management of new outcomes is proposed as an effective tool in environmental planning. increasing growth of urbanization has caused in recent decades that attention to tourism is considered as the largest and most diverse industry. In fact, the ecotourism is a responsible tourism to the natural environment while protects environment it also ensures the health of local communities, today this industry is the one of the most hope activities which is referred under titled development passport. Survey of natural geography and ecological capability evaluation each of ecotourism attractions in our country, it shows that ecotourism in Iran is a unique and susceptible economic resource, and also it has been left to its own devices.
This research was done in framework of the ecological model and multicriteria decision making methods such as ANP, FAHP BUKLY by using Arc GIS 10, Super Decision 2.0.8, Surfer11 soft wares and with the aim of choosing the suitable locations for agriculture land use in Behbahan north plain. The present study is based on the ecological parameters (physical and biological) to assess the ecological capability of agriculture landuse including physiographic (percent slope), precipitation (Cp), temperature (Ct), distance from water sources (Wc), soil depth (Pd), soil erosion (Es), soil structure (Ps), soil texture (Pte), soil drainage (Pdr) and vegetation types. this Fuzzy AHP method, for criteria pairwise comparison and determining weights and preferences are used trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and geometric averaging method respectively. Fuzzy AHP method proposed by Buckley is the generalized form of the classical AHP method. ANP is based on the creation of a control network which describes dependency among decision elements. In Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Analysis method, For paired comparisons of criteria and for gaining weight and preference use Triangular fuzzy numbers and Geometric averaging method Respectively. In order to integrate layers Simple Additive Weighting or Weighted linear combination method (SAW) Was used. The study area is located in Behbahan north plain. This area is limited in 30°, 36' to 30°, 37' north of latitude and 50°, 19' to 50°, 29' east longitude.
3– Results and discussion
Analyzing the criteria objectively involved using specific GIS techniques to break the analysis down into quantifiable measurements. From the available 10 m interval contour map of the study area in ArcGIS, a contour Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was generated from which a grid DEM was derived and the slope data was obtained. The reclassify tool was then used to reclassify all the variable data sets by Iranian ecological model. in order to dimensionless of raster layers and integrate layers was used fuzzy method weighted linear combination method respectively. After standardization of the layers, the weighting stages of each parameter by ANP in Super Decision 2.0.8 software. By FAHP decision making model and pairwise comparisons that were performed by experts, the weights of criteria and the effective subcriteria are calculated in capability evaluation of ecotourism landuse. In the end, after obtaining the final weight of each layer using ANP and FAHP, the layers were integrated by WLC model in Arc GIS 10 software. Then, it obtained the final map of land suitability evaluation to the study area for the ecotourism landuse. the ANP method to measure the slope of the highest impact and lowest impact on the study area And FAHP method among the main criteria, physiographic criteria most influence and impact are minimal compaction plant and in the soil standards, substandard construction and drainage are the most and least effective. Based on the final zoning map, from the total area of the region, the suitable and unsuitable capable is about 23 percent and about 46 percent for tourism by ANP and about 19 percent and 46 percent by FAHP respectively. According to the final maps obtained from the mentioned methods and their analysis, we can say that the results of the ANP method is more adaptation with reality. Using the software, Google Earth, and field studies can be said that the results of the ANP method is more consistent with reality.
The ecological model of ecotourism, three floors can be considered the beginning of the class, a third category to the quality and flexibility of land is unsuitable for this application. the study area has a diverse set of environmental resources, including adequate water, fertile soil, favorable climate, vegetation, natural and human phenomena that attract tourists and in the planning and proper use of them, can be solve many economic and social problems of the region and the development of comprehensive and sustainable path simultaneously. the results show that there is the possibility of tourism activity development in the area and the region conditions for ecotourism is well that this result is more clearly in ANP method. Finally, the conclusion showed that multi criteria analysis is caused to increase evaluation Precision for site selection and integrated models represented a effective solution to help group decision making of evaluators. the study area is the ecological potential for tourism because of their use of the dissolution of Traditional and Asmary which has a series of karstic features such as caves, canyon, hole is wet and Now, Dovlin, high capability in addition to the charm can also be educational and recreational aspects.
Keywords: Ecotourism, Land Suitability Evaluation, ANP, FAHP, Multi Criteria Decision Making Model