مقایسۀ دو روش تصمیم‌گیری Fuzzy-AHP و ANP به‌منظور رتبه‌بندی تناسب اراضی به‌منظور کاربری اکوتوریسم (مطالعۀ موردی: منطقۀ خائیز بهبهان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد سنجش از دور و GIS دانشکدة علوم، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 کارشناس ارشد ارزیابی و آمایش سرزمین دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی خاتم‌الانبیاء بهبهان

3 استادیار گروه محیط‌زیست دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی خاتم‌الانبیاء بهبهان

4 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جنگل‌داری و اکولوژی جنگل دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی خاتم‌الانبیاء بهبهان

چکیده

بهره‌برداری بهینه از منابع طبیعی و ساماندهی کاربری اراضی براساس توان اکولوژیکی آن‌ها، نقش مهمی در مدیریت محیط‌زیست و جلوگیری از تخریب آن‌ها در راستای توسعة پایدار دارد؛بنابراین، بهره‌برداری از توان‌ها و قابلیت‌های گردشگری و اکوتوریسمی در هر منطقه‌، زمینه‌ای پویا و فعال برای توسعة آن منطقه فراهم می‌کند. از این‌رو، ارزیابی توان اکوتوریسمی و تحلیل قابلیت‌های مزبور، ضرورتی ویژه دارد. در این پژوهش، ارزیابی تناسب اراضی منطقة خائیز شهرستان بهبهان با شناسایی پارامترهای شیب، جهت، دما، عمق خاک، تحول‌یافتگی خاک، بافت خاک، زهکشی خاک و تیپ پوشش گیاهی و بهره‌گیری از مدل‌های تصمیم‌گیری FUZZY- AHP باکلی و ANP در محیط GIS به‌منظور کاربری اکوتوریسم انجام گرفت. همچنین، بعد از تعیین لایه‌های موزون استاندارد، تلفیق لایه‌ها با کمک روش WLC صورت گرفت. نتایج نشان می‌دهد در روش ANP، 23 درصد از سطح منطقه دارای توان درجه یک و در روش FAHP حدود 19 درصد از سطح منطقه دارای توان درجه یک برای کاربری اکوتوریسم است. با توجه به نقشه‌های نهایی به‌دست‌آمده از هر دو روش و تجزیه و تحلیل آن‌ها در Google Earth، مشاهده شد مناطقی که از هر جهت شباهت یکسان دارند در روش ANP در یک طبقه و در روشFAHP در دو طبقة متفاوت قرار می‌گیرند که این با واقعیت موجود منطقه سازگار نیست. با استفاده از نرم‌افزار Google Earth و بررسی‌های میدانی، می‌توان گفت نتایج روش ANP با واقعیت سازگاری بیشتری دارد و زمینة گسترش فعالیت‌های اکوتوریسم در منطقه وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison Fuzzy-AHP and ANP Decision Making methods for The Land Suitability Rating In order to Ecotourism Landuse (Case study: Khaeiz region of Behbahan)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hosein Aghdar 1
  • Fatemeh Mohammadyari 2
  • Hamidreza Pourkhabaz 3
  • Vahid Rahimi 4
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract:
1-Introduction
The world today is facing with the crisis of resource destruction. Optimal utilization of natural resources and regulation of land use based on their ecological potential has important role in environmental management and prevent their destruction in order to sustainable development. Assessment of ecological potential as the core of environmental studies provides a good platform for environmental planning. In this field, geographic information system with high capacity in the management of new outcomes is proposed as an effective tool in environmental planning. increasing growth of urbanization has caused in recent decades that attention to tourism is considered as the largest and most diverse industry. In fact, the ecotourism is a responsible tourism to the natural environment while protects environment it also ensures the health of local communities, today this industry is the one of the most hope activities which is ‌referred under titled development passport. Survey of natural geography and ecological capability evaluation each of ecotourism attractions in our country, it shows that ecotourism in Iran is a unique and susceptible economic resource, and also it has been left to its own devices.
2- Methodology
This research was done in framework of the ecological model and multicriteria decision making methods such as ANP, FAHP BUKLY by using Arc GIS 10, Super Decision 2.0.8, Surfer11 soft wares and with the aim of choosing the suitable locations for agriculture land use in Behbahan north plain. The present study is based on the ecological parameters (physical and biological) to assess the ecological capability of agriculture landuse including physiographic (percent slope), precipitation (Cp), temperature (Ct), distance from water sources (Wc), soil depth (Pd), soil erosion (Es), soil structure (Ps), soil texture (Pte), soil drainage (Pdr) and vegetation types. this Fuzzy AHP method, for criteria pairwise comparison and determining weights and preferences are used trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and geometric averaging method respectively. Fuzzy AHP method proposed by Buckley is the generalized form of the classical AHP method. ANP is based on the creation of a control network which describes dependency among decision elements. In Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Analysis method, For paired comparisons of criteria and for gaining weight and preference use Triangular fuzzy numbers and Geometric averaging method Respectively. In order to integrate layers Simple Additive Weighting or Weighted linear combination method (SAW) Was used. The study area is located in Behbahan north plain. This area is limited in 30°, 36' to 30°, 37' north of latitude and 50°, 19' to 50°, 29' east longitude.

3– Results and discussion
Analyzing the criteria objectively involved using specific GIS techniques to break the analysis down into quantifiable measurements. From the available 10 m interval contour map of the study area in ArcGIS, a contour Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was generated from which a grid DEM was derived and the slope data was obtained. The reclassify tool was then used to reclassify all the variable data sets by Iranian ecological model. in order to dimensionless of raster layers and integrate layers was used fuzzy method weighted linear combination method respectively. After standardization of the layers, the weighting stages of each parameter by ANP in Super Decision 2.0.8 software. By FAHP decision making model and pairwise comparisons that were performed by experts, the weights of criteria and the effective subcriteria are calculated in capability evaluation of ecotourism landuse. In the end, after obtaining the final weight of each layer using ANP and FAHP, the layers were integrated by WLC model in Arc GIS 10 software. Then, it obtained the final map of land suitability evaluation to the study area for the ecotourism landuse. the ANP method to measure the slope of the highest impact and lowest impact on the study area And FAHP method among the main criteria, physiographic criteria most influence and impact are minimal compaction plant and in the soil standards, substandard construction and drainage are the most and least effective. Based on the final zoning map, from the total area of the region, the suitable and unsuitable capable is about 23 percent and about 46 percent for tourism by ANP and about 19 percent and 46 percent by FAHP respectively. According to the final maps obtained from the mentioned methods and their analysis, we can say that the results of the ANP method is more adaptation with reality. Using the software, Google Earth, and field studies can be said that the results of the ANP method is more consistent with reality.

4– Conclusion
The ecological model of ecotourism, three floors can be considered the beginning of the class, a third category to the quality and flexibility of land is unsuitable for this application. the study area has a diverse set of environmental resources, including adequate water, fertile soil, favorable climate, vegetation, natural and human phenomena that attract tourists and in the planning and proper use of them, can be solve many economic and social problems of the region and the development of comprehensive and sustainable path simultaneously. the results show that there is the possibility of tourism activity development in the area and the region conditions for ecotourism is well that this result is more clearly in ANP method. Finally, the conclusion showed that multi criteria analysis is caused to increase evaluation Precision for site selection and integrated models represented a effective solution to help group decision making of evaluators. the study area is the ecological potential for tourism because of their use of the dissolution of Traditional and Asmary which has a series of karstic features such as caves, canyon, hole is wet and Now, Dovlin, high capability in addition to the charm can also be educational and recreational aspects.

Keywords: Ecotourism, Land Suitability Evaluation, ANP, FAHP, Multi Criteria Decision Making Model

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ecotourism
  • Land suitability evaluation
  • ANP
  • FAHP
  • Multi Criteria Decision Making Model
Pourkhabbaz,H. R., Aghdar, H., Mohammadyari, F. and Rahimi, V., 2014, The implementation of agriculture ecological model usingAHPandFAHPmodelsin theGISenvironment (Case study:Khaeizregion of Behbahan), Journal of Planning and Preparation Space, Vol. 18, No. 4, PP. 21- 48. (In Persian)                                                                                               
                                                                                       
پورخباز، حمیدرضا، اقدر، حسین، محمدیاری، فاطمه و وحید رحیمی، 1393، اجرای مدل اکولوژیک کشاورزی با استفاده ازAHP و FAHPدر محیط  GIS(مطالعة موردی: منطقه خائیز بهبهان)، مجلة برنامه‌ریزی و آمایش فضا، دورة هجدهم، شمارة 4، صص 21- 48.
Pourkhabbaz,H. R., Gavanmardi, S. and Faragi Sabokbar, A. R., 2013, Multi-criteria decision-making methods and integrated model ANP-DEMATEL agricultural land suitability analysis (case study: Qazvin plain),Journal ofEcology, Vol. 39, No. 3, PP. 151- 164. (In Persian)                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                 
پورخباز، حمیدرضا، جوانمردی، سعیده، یاوری، احمدرضا و حسنعلی فرجی سبکبار، 1391، کاربرد روش تصمیم‌گیری چندمعیاره و مدل تلفیقی ANP-DEMATELدر آنالیز تناسب اراضی کشاورزی (مطالعة موردی: دشت قزوین)، مجلة محیط‌شناسی، سال سی‌و‌نهم، شمارة 3، صص 151- 164.
Jozy, S. A. and Moradi Magd, N., 2011, Evaluation of ecological tourism area Bvalhsn Dezful to establish by SMITH, Journal of Environment and Development, Vol. 2, No. 3, PP. 7- 14. (In Persian)                                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                        
جوزی، سیدعلی و نسرین مرادی مجد، 1389، ارزیابی توان اکولوژیکی منطقه بوالحسن دزفول به‌منظور استقرار کاربری گردشگری به روشSMITH، مجلة محیط‌زیست و توسعه، سال دوم، شمارة 3، صص 7- 14.
Deram, A. and Mour, A., 2010, Introduction to planning and management of ecotourism, Translated by: Ranjbar, M., Aeyzh publications. (In Persian)                                                                                                   
درام، اندی و آلن مور، 1388، مقدمه‌ای بر برنامه‌ریزی و مدیریت اکوتوریسم، ترجمة محسن رنجبر، انتشارات آییژ.
Delavar, M. and Vali Samany, J. M., 2009, Application of analytic network process (ANP) in priority sites shrimp, Journal of of Water Resources Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, PP. 46- 56. (In Persian)                                                                                                                                           
دلاور، مجید و جمال محمد ولی سامانی، 1387، کاربرد فرایند تحلیلشبکه‌ای(ANP)در اولویت‌بندی ساختگاه‌های پرورش میگو، مجلة تحقیقات منابع آب ایران، سال ششم، شمارة 2، صص 46- 56.
Zebardast, E., 2010, The application of network analysis process (ANP) in Urban and Regional Planning, Journal of Fine Arts, Vol. 41, No. 3, PP. 79- 90. (In Persian)
                                                              
زبردست، اسفندیار، 1388، کاربرد فرایند تحلیل شبکه‌ای(ANP)در برنامه‌ریزی شهری و منطقه‌ای، نشریة هنرهای زیبا، سال چهل‌ویکم، شمارة 3، صص 79- 90.
Rezvany, A., 2010, Rol ecotourism and conservation environment, Journal ofEcology, Vol. 31, No. 3, PP. 115- 122. (In Persian)                                                                                                       
رضوانی، عبدالله، 1388، نقش اکوتوریسم در حفاظت محیط‌زیست، مجلة محیط‌شناسی، سال سی‌ویکم، شمارة 3، صص 115- 122.
Soltany, Z. and Nori, S. H., 2009, Evaluation of ecotourism and nature tourism planning and sustainable development in the city Khansar Using GIS, Journal of Geographical Research, Vol. 4, No. 99, PP. 76- 100. (In Persian)
سلطانی، زهرا و سیدهدایت‌اله نوری، 1388، ارزیابی توان محیطی شهرستان خوانسار به‌منظور توسعه توریسم با استفاده از GIS، فصلنامة تحقیقات جغرافیایی، دورة چهارم، شمارة نودونه، صص 76- 100.
Sharif Abady Morovati, A., 2013, Providing integrated model of network analysis and Prvmsh to rank websites based on usability criteria, Journal of Information Technology Management, Vol. 2, No. 5,  PP 187- 206. (In Persian)                                                                                                       
شریف‌آبادی مروتی، علی، 1391، ارائة مدل تلفیقی فرآیند تحلیل شبکه‌ای و پرومثه برای رتبه‌بندی وب‌گاه‌ها بر اساس معیارهای کاربردپذیری، مجلة مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات،دورة دوم، شمارة 5، صص 187-206.
                                     
Ataii, M., 2011, Multi criteria decision making, Shahrood University Press. (In Persian)                 
عطائی، محمد، 1389، تصمیم‌گیری چندمعیاره، انتشارات دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود.
Faragi Sabokbar, H. A., Salmani, M., Feridony, F., Karim Zadeh, H. and Rahimi, H., 2008, Landfill rural location using network analysis process (ANP) Case rural areas Quchan city,Quarterly Journal of Human, Vol. 1, No. 14, PP. 128- 149. (In Persian)
فرجی سبکبار، حسنعلی، سلمانی، محمد، فریدونی، فاطمه، کریم‌زاده، حسین و حسن رحیمی، 1386، مکان‌یابی محل دفن بهداشتی زباله روستایی با استفاده از مدل فرایند شبکه‌ای تحلیل(ANP)مطالعه موردی نواحی روستایی شهرستان قوچان، فصلنامة مدرس علوم انسانی، دورة اول، شمارة 14، صص 128- 149.
 
Kia, K., 2007, Evaluation of regional ecological Sardasht Dezful ecotourism with emphasis on attractions, MA Thesis, Evaluation and land preparation, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University Khouzestan. (In Persian)
 
کیا، کیانوش، 1386، ارزیابی محیط زیست منطقۀ سردشت دزفول با تأکید بر جاذبه­های اکوتوریسم، پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد ارزیابی و آمایش سرزمین، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی خوزستان.
Makhdom, M., Darvish Sefat, A. A., Jafarzadeh, H., Makhdom, A. R., 2010, Environmental assessment and planning with GIS, Publication of Tehran University. (In Persian)  
 مخدوم، مجید، درویش‌صفت، علی‌اصغر، جعفرزاده، هوفر،  مخدوم، عبدالرضا، 1388، ارزیابی و برنامه‌ریزی محیط‌زیست با سامانه‌های اطلاعات جغرافیایی، انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
Najafy, A., 2010, The application of network analysis process (ANP) in the analysis of structural and environmental challenges in the management of executive projects, International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, Vol. 1, No. 21, PP. 63- 76. (In Persian)
نجفی، اسدالله، 1388، کاربرد فرایند تحلیل شبکه‌ای(ANP) در تحلیل چالش‌های ساختاری و محیط اجرایی سازمان در مدیریت پروژه‌ها، نشریة بین‌المللی مهندسی صنایع و مدیریت تولید، دورة اول، شمارة 21، صص 63- 76.
Agarwal, A., Shankar, R., Tiwari, M. K., 2006, Modeling the metrics of lean, agile and leagile supply chain: an ANP-based approach, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 21, No. 3, PP. 211– 225.
 
 Chen, Z., Li, H. and Wong, C. T. C., 2005, Environal planning: analytic network process model for environmentally conscious construction planning, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 42, No. 2, PP. 92– 101.
                                                                                                       
Chen, C. T., Lin, C. T. and Huang, S. F., 2006, A fuzzy approach for supplier evaluation and selection in supply chain management, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 39, No. 4, PP. 102. 289- 301.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Erdogmus, S., Aras, H. and Koc, E., 2006, Evaluation of alternative fuels for residential heating in Turkey using analytic network process with group decision making, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 10, No. 4, PP. 269– 279.                                                                    
                                                                                 
Fung, T., 2007, Ecotourism planning using multiple criteria evaluation with GIS, Geocarto International, Vol. 34, No. 1, PP. 87- 105.                                                                                          
                                                                                  
Jharkharia, S., Shankar R., 2007, Selection of logistics service provider: An analytic network process (ANP), Omega, Vol. 35, No. 3, PP. 274- 289.                                                                      
                                                                    
Kalogirou, S., 2002, Expert systems and GIS: An application of land suitability evaluation, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Vol. 26, No. 2- 3, PP. 89– 112.
 
Khan, S. and Faisal, M. N., 2007, An analytical network process model for municipal solid waste disposal option, Waste Management, Vol. 17, No. 2,  PP. 6- 15.
 
Kaya, T. and Kahraman, C., 2011, An integrated Fuzzy AHP- ELECTRE methodology for environmental impact assessment,Expert Systems With Applications, Vol. 29, No. 3, PP. 8553- 8562.
Mansir, A., 2007, A geographic information system (GIS) and multi-criteria analysis for sustainable, Tourism Planning, Vol. 31, No. 1, PP. 206- 208.                                                                         
                                                                                    
Monavari, M. and Feraidoni, A., 2008, Kakarza regional talent identification for evaluation of ecological tourism with the help of GIS, The 4th National Conference of Environmental Strategies and Improve Them, Vol. 28, No. 4, PP. 27- 31.                                                                   
                                                                                      
Partovi, F. Y. and Corredoira, R. A., 2002, Quality function deployment for the good of soccer, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 32, No. 2,  PP. 642– 656.                                 
                                                  
Qiao, L., 2008, A model for suitability evaluation of tourism development for the suburban mining wasteland and its empirical research, Ecological Economy 4, Vol. 34, No. 2, PP. 338- 345.                                                                                                                                      
 Rostamzadeh, R. and Sofian, S., 2011, Prioritizing effective 7Ms to improve production systems performance using fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS, Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 31, No. 4,  PP. 5166- 5177.                                                                                            
Sarkis, J. and Sundarraj, R. P., 2002, Hub location at digital equipment corporation: A comprehensive analysis of qualitative and quantitative factors, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 27, No. 2,  PP. 336– 347.                                                                               
Swarbrooke, J., 1998, Sustainable Tourism Management, Newyork, Cobi.                               
Sadeghi Dehkordi, V. and Firozi, M. A., 2008, Evaluate the ecological potential watershed for urban development Ghaffar using GIS, The 4th National Conference of Environmental Strategies and Improve Them, Vol. 25, No. 3, PP. 45- 52.
 
Saaty, T., 1999, Fundamentals of the analytic network process  dependence and Feedback in Decision-making with a Single Network. Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 2, PP. 129- 157.
 
Vosoghi, A., 2005, Practical feasibility of ecotourism projects in protected areas in Khuzestan province first phase: dose and Karkheh protected area, Environmental Protection Agency, Vol. 39, No. 2, PP. 24- 41.
Yeh, T. M. and Huang, Y. L., 2014, Factors in determining wind farm location: Integrating GQM, fuzzy DEMATEL and ANP, Renewable Energy, Vol. 22, No. 2, PP. 159- 169.