آثار گسترش فیزیکی و تغییر کاربری‌‌های شهری بر حریم رودخانه (مطالعۀ موردی: رود خشک در شیراز)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری ژئومورفولوژی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم تحقیقات تهران

2 استاد ژئومورفولوژی دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار اقلیم‌شناسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم تحقیقات تهران

4 استاد جغرافیای طبیعی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم تحقیقات تهران

چکیده

توسعة فیزیکی شهرها، تجاوز به حریم و بستر رودخانه‌ها و اراضی پیرامونی آن‌ها منجر شده است. استفادة انسان از رودخانه و نوع دخالت در حریم آن موجب تغییراتی در کانال رود و حاشیة آن می‌‌شود. در دهه‌های اخیر، کلان‌شهر شیراز شاهد گسترش بیش‌‌ازحد فضاهای ساخته‌شده بوده است؛ به‌گونه‌ای‌‌که بیش از دیگر شهرهای استان رشد فیزیکی دارد. بخش اعظم این توسعه، نامنظم و خودسرانه صورت گرفته و درنتیجه، توسعة فیزیکی شهر به تغییر لندفرم‌های ژئومورفولوژیکی اطراف منجر شده است. هدف این پژوهش، بررسی توسعۀ شهری در حریم رودخانة خشک و دامنة تغییرات آن در بازة زمانی 48 ساله در شهر شیراز است.این پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی است و به‌‌صورت کتابخانه‌ای و میدانی انجام شده است. پژوهش با استفاده از عکس هوایی سال 1346 به مقیاس 1:20000، تصاویر ماهوارة لندست در سال 1394، سنجندة اولی و نقشه‌های توپوگرافی منطقه و برداشت داده‌های میدانی به کمک سامانۀ موقعیت‌‌یاب جهانی (GPS) صورت گرفت. همچنین به‌‌منظور پردازش داده‌ها و تهیۀ نقشه، از نرم‌افزارهای ArcGis10.3 و Envi4.8 استفاده شد. مطابق نتایج، در دورۀ زمانی فوق توسعۀ فیزیکی شهر در حریم رودخانه، در مقایسه با سال 1346 در بازۀ اول 21 هکتار، در بازۀ دوم 220 هکتار و در بازۀ سوم 54 هکتار است. به‌طورکلی، 295 هکتار از حریم رودخانه به کاربری‌های ساخت‌وساز شهری تعلق گرفته و جابه‌‌جایی عرضی رودخانه در بخش یک 176 متر، بخش دوم 145 متر و در بخش سوم 68 متر بوده است.همچنین بررسی‌ها نشان می‌دهد الگوی گسترش فیزیکی کلان‌شهر شیراز، از هسته‌ای به‌‌سمت خطی پیش رفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Physical Development and Urban Land Use Change on Riparian Areas (Case Study: Khoshk River in Shiraz City, Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Meysam Jamali 1
  • Ebrahim Moghimi 2
  • Zeynolabedin Jafarpour 3
  • Parviz Kardovani 4
1 PhD Candidate, Geomorphology, Department of Natural Geography, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor of Geomorphology, University of Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Climatology, Department of Natural Geography, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
4 Professor of Natural Geography, Department of Natural Geography, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The Khoshk River is originated from Golestan and Ghalat highlands and flow in a northwest and southeast direction. After traversing a short distance it covers Golestan and Dukohak from the right and the Ghasr Ghomshe tributary from the left. Then, in a direct cross from the middle of Shiraz metro police, it will divide it into half in south and east and at the end it will pour into Maharlo Lake. Numerous researches with different methods and purposes have been done. The aim of this paper is to investigate the changes of manipulation of the zones in time-place range in the sanctum of the river.
 
Methodology
The main research method, in this paper is the traversal and analytical method. Thus, to determine the ranges in the limitation of the case, we have used existing maps, scope revision and Google earth software. Then, the oldest satellite images of the zone (Lansat8 OLI imagery) have been provided for 2015 with the power of 30 meter state dividing coherent to Shiraz metropolis. By the use of geological maps and topography, air shots and satellite images of Shiraz were studied and geomorphologic annotation of them were done to expand the city in sanctum of the river as to recognize the changes of dry riverbed due to urban expansion in two time sections 2015 and 1967.
 
Results and Discussion
In this paper the riverbed divides into 3 ranges as follow:
First range: the direction of Chanarsookhte is from Tange Sorkh to Maliabad Bridge with 8 km long and average slope of 1.42%. Riverbed is formed by generally marine stages and Razak marine condition. The feature of this part of river is rash slope, severe erosion of near lands, and brinding of strand. The width of alluvial sediments has been reported about 70 meters. The average of river width on the aerial image of 1967compared to 2015 revealed 19 m reduction. The river has been changed to 56 ha in 2015. This means 27.5 percent of river space has been reduced because of human operations in the sanctum of river, removing sand from the riverbed and the buildings.
Second range: the river has a distance of 15 km from Maliabad Bridge to Fazilat Bridge and the slope is 0.90%. In this direction, Nahre Azam sideway, Ghoran Gate, Sadi, Bajgah and etc. are flowing into Koshk River. Because of appropriate soil and enough mineral water, the gardens and agricultural lands has been expanded near the river. The property of this range is that the river channel has been shored by the stile barrier. The main characteristics of the river are narrow pass way of river channel, unsuitable bridges, floor fraction, lateral erosion of river, building sideways in both left and right shores of the river with the length of 7 km and urban buildings in the foot print of river. Thus, most of the violation to the sanctum of river has been occurred in this range which has caused some problems for Shiraz metropolis.
The average width of river in 2015 compared to 1967 has been reduced 140 meters. On the other side, the space has been changed from 312 ha in 1967 to 92 ha in 2015. This means 70.5% of river space has been reduced because of the change of controlling the lands due to human operation in the sanctum of the river.
Third range: the river is 10 km long from Fazilat Bridge to the terminal point of the city. The kind of bed sediment is formed by torrential alluvial sediments and Kovaterner sediments. The thickness of the alluvial sediments has been reported 200 meter. The property of this part of low slope channel is sedimentation of the alluviums and reduction of river tension, and low capacity at the time of big floodwaters.
Most of the river direction has been ended to shore by the stile barrier and the mean width of river compared to second range is lower (42m) and its mean depth compared to around deserts is 1.5m-2m. Nowadays, the average river width compared to 1967 has been reduced about 49 meters. The river space in this range in 1967 is about 95ha but nowadays it has been reached lower than 50ha. It means that 57% of river space has been decreased.  The urban expansion and agricultural operations in this range has caused the constriction of the river pass way. As in every raining, it causes the uprising of river down the Sardkhane Bridge.
 
Conclusion
Investigation about the changes of urban expansion effects and changes in the lane controlling in the sanctum of Khoshk River are the most important aims of this paper. According to the results of urban expansion investigation in the first range, there is alluvial fan in the foot of mountains foothill stone which is firmed by sediments, shale and weak seeds. In the second and third local sections, the city is placed in a desert zone where the sediments of alluvial sediments are in Kovaterner. Urban expansion in the sanctum of river in the above time-local ranges causes the reduction of riverbed space compared to last year. The space of river bed has been changed from 77ha to 56 ha (27.5%) in the first range,, from 312 to 92 ha (70.5%) in the second range and from 95 ha to 41 ha (57%) in third range.  The width displacement of the river was 176 meter in the first range, 145 meter in the second range and 68 meter in the third range. In the past, the city was nuclear and compressed and occupied lower space of river sanctum. It can also be argued that the type of physical expansion of this city has proceeded in thorough linear type.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Khoshk River
  • land use changes
  • Metropolitan Shiraz
  • Spatio-temporal changes
  • urban development
  1. اسماعیلی، رضا و ساره ولی­خانی، 1393، ارزیابی و تحلیل شرایط هیدرومورفولوژیکی رودخانة لاویج با استفاده از شاخص کیفیت مورفولوژیکی، مجلۀ پژوهش‌های ژئومورفولوژی کمی، سال دوم، شمارۀ 4، صص 37- 53.
  2. کوک، آر. یو و جی. سی. دورکمپ، 1377، ژئومورفولوژی و مدیریت محیط، ترجمۀ شاپور گودرزی­نژاد، جلد اول، چاپ اول، سمت، تهران.
  3. جمالی، میثم، مقیمی، ابراهیم، جعفرپور، زین­العابدین و پرویز کردوانی، 1394، تحلیل فضایی مخاطرات ژئومورفولوژیکی توسعۀ شهر در حریم رودخانۀ خشک کلان‌شهر شیراز، مجلۀ تحلیل فضایی مخاطرات محیطی دانشگاه خوارزمی، سال دوم، شمارۀ 7، زیر چاپ، تهران.
  4. حسین­زاده، محمدمهدی و رضا اسماعیلی، 1394، ژئومورفولوژی رودخانه‌ای (مفاهیم، اشکال و فرایندها)، چاپ اول، انتشارات دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران.
  5. خاکپور، براتعلی، ولایتی، سعدالله و سیدقاسم کیانژاد، 1386، الگوی تغییرات کاربری اراضی شهر بابل طی سال‌های 1362- 1387، مجلة جغرافیا و توسعة ناحیه‌ای، سال پنجم، شمارة 9، صص 45- 64.
  6. رضایی­مقدم، محمدحسین، ثروتی، محمدرضا و صیاد اصغری سراسکانرود، 1391، بررسی تغییرات شکل هندسی رودخانة قزل‌اوزن با تأکید بر عوامل ژئومورفولوژیک و زمین‌شناسی، مجلة جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی محیطی، سال بیست­وسوم، شمارة 2، صص 1- 14.
  7. چورلی استانلی ای، ریچاردجی وشوم دیوید ای سون، 1379، ژئومورفولوژی، جلد سوم (فرایندهای دامنه‌ای، آبراهه‌ای، ساحلی و بادی)، ترجمۀ احمد معتمد و ابراهیم مقیمی، چاپ اول، سمت، تهران.
  8. زنگی‌آبادی، علی، 1372، تحلیل فضایی الگوی توسعة فیزیکی شهر کرمان، پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه تربیت­مدرس، تهران.
  9. مرشدی، جعفر، علوی­پناه، سیدکاظم و ابراهیم مقیمی، 1392، بررسی تغییرات طولی رودخانۀ کارون با استفاده از روش میانگین جهت‌دار خطی (منطقۀ مورد مطالعه: از شوشتر تا اروند)، مجلۀ محیط‌شناسی، دورة سی­ونهم، شمارة 4، صص 89- 104.
  10. مقیمی، ابراهیم، 1391، ژئومورفولوژی شهری، چاپ پنجم، انتشارات دانشگاه تهران، تهران.
  11. یمانی، مجتبی، رحیمی، مسعود و عبدالکریم ویسی، 1394، مورفومتری و مقایسة تغییرات عرضی رودخانة ارس طی سه دهة اخیر (مطالعة موردی: پایین‌دست سد میل­مغان)، مجلة پژوهش‌های ژئومورفولوژی کمی، سال سوم، شمارة 4، صص 74- 89.
    1. Bullard, R. D., 2003, Atlanta Megaspraele, from for applied research and policy, PP. 17-23.
    2. Chich C., Shanchen W., Wu, L. and Lin, C., 2006, Active Deformation Front Delineated by Drainage Pattern Analysis and Vertical Movement Rates, Southwestern Coastal Plain Taiwan, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 47, PP. 89-109.
    3. Esmaeili, R. and Valikhani, S., 2015, Assess and Analyze the Conditions Hydro Morphological Lavij River Using Morphological Quality Index, Journal of Quantitative Geomorphology, No.4, PP. 37-53. (In Persian)
    4. Hosseinzadeh, M. M. and Esmaili, R., 2015, Fluvial Geomorphology, (Concepts, Forms and Processes), 1st Edition, Shahid Beheshti University Press, Tehran. (In Persian)http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov http://rc.majlis.ir/fa/law/show/120845http://www.landcover.org
    5. Razola, J. A. L. and Garzón, G., 2014, Recent Human Impacts and Change in Dynamics and Morphology of Ephemeral Rivers, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 14:713–730.
    6. Jamali, M., Moghimi, E. and Jafarpour, Z., 2015, Geomorphology of Karst Features of Shiraz City and Arjan Plain and Development Limitations, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Science Index 97, International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 1, PP. 25-31. (In Persian)
    7. Jamali M., Moghimi E., Jafarpour Z. and Kardavani P., 2016, Spatial Geomorphological Hazards Analysis of Urban Development in Riparian Zone of Khoshk River, Metropolis Shiraz, Iran, Journal of Spatial Analysis Environmental Hazarts, University of Kharazmi, Under print. (In Persian)
    8. Khakpoor, B., Velayati, S. and Kyanjhad, S., 2007, Babol City Pattern of Land Use Changes During the Years 2008-1983, Journal of Geography and Development Area, Vol. 5, No.9, PP. 45-64. (In Persian)
    9. Khan M., Shaari N., Nazaruddin, D. and Mansoor, H., 2015, Flood-Induced River Disruption: Geomorphic Imprints and Topographic Effects in Kelantan River Catchment from Kemubu to Kuala Besar, Kelantan, Malaysia, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Science Index 97, International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 1, PP. 10-14. (In Persian)
    10. Moghimi E., 2012, Urban Geomorphology, 5th Edition, Tehran University Publication, Tehran.
    11. Morshedi J., Alavipnah, K. and Moghimi, E., 2014, Reviews Longitudinal Changes of Karun River by Using Directional Linear Average, Case Study:From Shoushtar to Arvand, Journal of Ecology, Vol. 39, No. 4, PP. 89-104. (In Persian)
    12. Pourkarimi, P. and Karimzadeh, H., 2015, Geographic Phenomena Role in the Formation and Development of Space-PhysicalArdebil, First International Congress on Earth, Space & Clean Energy, November 5, Ardebil.
    13. Pourmokhtar, M. J., 2001, The Role Of The “Khoshk River” in Shiraz Sustainable Development, MA Thesis, Shiraz University, Siraz.
25. Cooke, R.U., and Doornkamp, J.C., 1990, Geomorphology in Environmental Management; 2end. Oxford: Clarendon press.

  1. Rezaei Moghaddam M., Servati, M. and Asghari Saraskanroud, S., 2013, Reviews Geometric Shape Changes Ghezel Ozan River and Earth Geological with an Emphasis on Geomorphological Factors, Journal of Geography and Environmental Planning, University of Isfahan, No. 46, PP. 1-14. (In Persian)
  2. Ribolin, A. and Pagnolo, M., 2007, Drainage Network Geometry versus Tectonics in the Argentera Massif (French-Italian Alps), Geomorphology, Vol. 93, No. 3/4, PP. 253-266.
28. Chorely, Stanley .A, Richard, J., and Schumm David E., Sugden, 1985; Geomorphology; New York: Methune&Co.

  1. Aher S. P., Bairagi, Sh. I., Deshmukh P. P. and Gaikwad, R. D., 2012, River Change Detection and Bank Erosion Identification Using Topographical and Remote Sensing Data, International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS), Vol. 2, No. 3, PP. 1-7.
  2. Thapa, R. B. and Murayama, Y., 2008, Land Evaluation for Peri-urban Agriculture Using Analytical Hierarchical Process and Geographic Information System Techniques: A Case Study of Hanoi, Land Use Policy, No. 25, PP. 225–239.
  3. Uddin, K., Shrestha, B. and Alam, M. S., 2011, Assessment of Morphological Changes and Vulnerability of River Bank Erosion alongside the River Jamuna Using Remote Sensing, Journal of Earth Science and Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, PP. 29-34.
  4. Yamani, M., Rahimi, M. and Veyssi, A., 2015, Morphometry and Lateral Changes Aras River during the Last Three Decades,Case Study: Milmogan, Dam Downstream, Journal of Quantitative Geomorphology Tehran, Vol. 3, No. 4, PP. 74-89. (In Persian)
  5. Zangiabadi, A., 1993, Analysis of the Spatial Pattern of Physical Development in Kerman, MA Thesis, University of Tarbiat Modarres, Tehran. (In Persian)