عنوان مقاله [English]
It is believed that nomadic life is developed because of adaptation to ecological conditions, but after the industrial revolution (1750) and the advasces in technology also affected nomadic life. Changes in Iranian nomadic population were a result of Reza shah's plan to settle nomads (Takhteh Ghapoo) according to his Modernization policy. After Islamic revolution, comprehensive development of Iran’s nomadic regions was proposed with the aims of improving the nation; but these projects did not succeed, because the expansion of inner capitalist and pseudo-capitalist systems marginalized nomadic population, and this itself changed nomadic life. Unlike the past conditions, now the tribes were forced to settle despite their tendency to have accommodation. In some cases, without government's policy the tribes settled by their own will. This caused confusion in the political and socio-economic structure of nomadic tribes. This feedback corresponds more to our case study (Sistani nomads). Addition to these above mentioned factors, recent droughts (1998 to 2007) ruined pasturelands during summer (South Khorasan) and winter season (Sistan Plain) in this region. As a result, Sistani nomadic life has been greatly in danger of destroying the environmental. Before these changes, the situation of nomads, especially nomad women, was worsened and their role in family income was decreased. This paper studies the role of Sistani nomad women before and after habitation based on the following hypotheses.
- The role of Sistani nomad women was underestimated after habitation.
- There is a significant relationship between the weakness of Sistani nomad women role and family income.
- There is a significant relationship between these womens participation in family income before and after habitation.
The statistical population of this study is 5 settled groups with 250 families in Zabol. Using Cohran equation, we have randomly selected 141 households with sampling. We have asked 124 women for distance of groups and availability problems. We have used a questionnaire in order to collect data. The 2 questionnaires were designed, one of which for nomad women and we have used 0.8 (goat & kid (yeanling)), 5(cow & calf) and 8 (camel & camel’s kid) coefficients regarding the kinds of livestock. This is to equalize changing rank units. With regard to animal products, we have also calculated a 100 days of milking period. To compare women’s status before and after habitation, the price of livestock animal products and handy crafts have been measured according to the current prices (2010). The Second questionnaire has been distributed among the elders of the nomad society. In the experience, we have also utilized bigeminal comparison and Pierson cohesion.
Results and Discussion
The study has indicated that 31.2 % of husbands are unemployed and 17.6 % of them have just begun to work. If we add the 18.4 % of those who have non-productive jobs, about 67.2 % do conestraction work. In other words, they are out of the production cycle; and only 32.8 % are in the production cycle (agriculture & ranching). On the other hand, 97.6 % of the nomad women are house holders and practically they have no role in economy compared with before habitation. Only 2.4 % do dressmaking and broidery. However, before habitation, these activities are parallel to their main activities (animal products, handy crafts, etc.). Given the ecological peculiarities and its changing situation Sistan, these facts show that nomad's habitation in Sistan was not a good plan.
Comparing the sistani before and after habitation shows that, before being settled all nomads had livestock; but after settelment 25.6 % did not have any livestock. If 100 livestock with other activities can complete family income, before habitation only 33.6 % have 100 livestock, but after habitation, about 25.6 % have lost their livestock. Secondly, 54.4 % have lesser than 100 livestock. In other words, about 80 % have been deprived of livestock as a source of income; although we see 33.6 % before habitation.
Before habitation, 57.7 % of ranchers had 100-499 livestock, but this number decreased to 8.8 % after habitation. The share of ranchers with more than 500 livestock decreased from 8 to 1.6 %. These numbers show tendency from a middle point to a lower point from livestock point of view and subsequently this affects economic situation and life quality in the studied nomads. We compared their activity before and after habitation using t-test, and the results confirmed our hypothesis.
Sistan region is located in a arid zone of north hemisphere. The region has confronted with two important phenomena of periodic flood and drought. The drought sometimes dries Hirmand River and the hamoons lake becames waterless and canebrakes are destroyed. In such conditions Sistani nomads are in danger. There are three solutions for the problem: Quitting this life style and beginning another one, continuing nomadic life and doing other parallel jobs, spontaneous habitation. These three solutions have been practiced in some tribes. However, one of Government’s policies is guided habitation to improve nomad’s life. Family peculiarities of the statistical sample shows that, this policy was not successful; especially after habitation, the participation of Sistani nomad women has decreased and subsequently the family income is reduced. This approach, not only created problems for nomads families, but also adaptation with the environment in other studies also showed the same results. The goals of government are to build low cost houses for the people, provide financial aids for them, and create new employment opportunities for them.
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