عنوان مقاله [English]
Philosophers use meta-ethics to criticize and compare ethical judgments to criticize, compare, and justify ethical systems and to discuss and classify the ideas within meta-ethics. We are going to perform meta-ethical theories in analysis of these theories of convergence in AI goal systems as convergences of ethical systems. We will try to classify this approach to show where it fits within meta-ethics more generally. In essence, we all tell stories and tell them truthfully as the best we can. This is our purpose, our mission, our profession. So much of what we hold as ethical precept is actually convention –socially agreed upon norms, not commandments come down from the mountain. However, all photojournalists believe that the purpose of what they do is to provide truthful information to the reader or viewer. This is the ethical rule, this is the guiding principle. How we accomplish this in many ways is subject to evolution, interpretation of symbolism, and arbitrary regulations.
It is impossible to remain far from cultural and ethnical differences, in the modern communities of the world. Cultural and ethnical diversity is among characteristics of the Iranian societies. Such diversity has been appeared in various periods among the micro and macro identities and followed by some difficulties. Such difficulties and convergent and divergent challenges have made modeling, surveys and recognition of the effective factors inevitable. Therefore, both forces play a crucial role in the Iranian nation integrity and their study is of great importance. Given the importance of the problem, we have studied ethnical divergence model based on the need assessment of the political managers and racial demands among the Kurd people in Kurdistan province. The suggested model for analysis of the above mentioned factors is in the forms of convergent, divergent and neutral.
The present research is an applied study by descriptive-analytical method. The researcher has attempted to provide a model for demonstration of the mutual influence of the effective factors in convergence and divergence. For this purpose, to implement the model, two questionnaires were prepared. The sample population is consisted of Kurd citizens and political managers at decision making. Sampling methods were clustering for citizens and purposeful for managers.
Results and discussion
The model represents the fact that if the ethnical policies are predicted in province divisions, social and cultural policies are predicted in the decisions. The participation in political power and economic concentration are realized based on the recognition of the racial demands. A top-down decision making will be formed by the legal and ethical groups’ elites and the results would be convergence and national integrity.
In neutral model, if the ethnical policies assume roles for citizens in some occasions and deny it in other cases, without precise investigations, and if these policies attempt conservatively to keep the current situation and use military powers or power demonstration, then racial issues would appear as fire under the ashes. Whenever power vacuum is felt, it will erupted and caused divergence among the races.
This model represents the fact that if the ethnical policies are practiced in province divisions, social and cultural policy making can be realized, based on political dictation. In such circumstances, the local and ethnical groups will lose their efficacy in policy making.
Using surveys and field studies, this model was applied to assess the situation or amount the Kurd divergence and convergence among people. As a case study, Kurdistan province was selected. The findings of the study revealed that situation is convergent in province divisions (with the average of 31.96), political participation (with the average of 36.46), socio-cultural (with the average of 33.44) and economic (with the average of 35.09) indicators.
Based on the need assessment of the political managers and recognition of the racial demands, the dominant situation in Kurdistan province tends to be convergent. However, the considerable point is that “the political managers and citizens of the province have different priorities. For instance, priority of the political managers is political participation indicator, while the first priority of the citizens’ demands is economic indicators.
27. گیدنز، آنتونی، 1383، جامعهشناسی، ترجمۀ منوچهر صبوری، چاپ دوازدهم، نشر نی، تهران.
28. مجتهدزاده، پیروز، 1381، جغرافیایسیاسیوسیاستجغرافیایی، چاپ اول، انتشارات سمت، تهران.
29. مجتهدزاده، پیروز، 1379، ایدههایژئوپلیتیکوواقعیتهایایرانی، چاپ اول، نشر نی، تهران.
30. محرابی، علیرضا و احمد غمپرور، عوامل مؤثر بر واگرایی کردها و بحران در کردستان ترکیه، فصلنامۀ ژئوپلیتیک، سال هفتم، شمارۀ 2، صص 213-183.
31. محمدیلرد، عبدالمحمود، 1393، آیندهپژوهی ثبات سیاسی در ایران، چاپ اول، پژوهشکدۀ مطالعات راهبردی، تهران.
32. مویر، ریچارد، 1379، درآمدینوبرجغرافیایسیاسی، ترجمۀ دره میرحیدر، چاپ اول، انتشارات سازمان جغرافیایی نیروهای مسلح، تهران.
33. نواح، عبدالرضا، نورالله قیصری و سید مجتبی تقوینسب، 1389، آسیبشناسی مسائل قومی در ایران، فصلنامۀ تحقیقات فرهنگی ایران، دورۀ 3، شمارۀ 3، صص 69-47.
34. John, M. and Ken, P., 1998, Sociology: A Global Interoductin, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, PP. 46-47.