نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 استاد و عضو قطب برنامهریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تهران
2 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیا و برنامهریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Security is an essential and public need that it is impossible for people to be needless of it. The importance and need for security is because of its unbreakable bond with life. Scientists consider security as one of the most essential needs of human beings. Humans have always been trying to provide security in their lives and one of the main motivations of the government is also providing security.
One of the major achievements of the human valuable security, especially economic and social security, insurance. Social Security is one of the essential needs of individuals, groups and communities and communities survival would be impossible without it and on the other hand, the need for individual and collective security and pursuing this security has always been a feature of human nature and people have always tried to protect themselves and their families from the dangers that have surrounded them.
One of the most important steps in the fourth program for rural development, is rural and tribal (nomadic) social insurance law enforcement. This action, however, was not in a set of goals, policies and the civil enforcement actions of the Rural development But it has been directly emphasized in the general policies of the Fourth Plan (Section 13, 19, 21 and 43), and specially Article 96 of the Law . Iranian citizenship, residence in rural and tribal (nomadic) areas, farmer who doesn’t live in rural area, having at least eighteen years of age whether married or single, signing the contract and payment of five percent of the optional income as premium, are the general conditions of membership in the farmers, villagers and nomads’ social insurance. Aging benefits, general disability due to work injury, general non-work-related disability, survivor benefits under the pension of the deceased insured dependents, are the benefits of membership in the farmers, villagers and nomads’ social insurance fund for farmers, rural and nomadic people.
According to the latest information from the social insurance fund for farmers, villagers and nomads in 1393, 1222195 of households in the country are covered by the insurance and its average acceptance rate is approximately 19.12 per cent. Number of insured people in Ilam is about 18,227 households with an average coverage of 30.33 percent which is higher than the national average. Also in Badreh about 448 households in the city are covered by the insurance and its average acceptance rate is 26/72 per cent. This research aims to analyze the impact of farmers, villagers and nomads’ social insurance on social security and sense of belonging in the villages of Badreh County in Ilam province and seeks to answer the following questions:
- What are the impacts of farmers, villagers and nomads’ social insurance on in the studied area? And what are the impacts of farmers, villagers and nomads’ social insurance on belonging sense of villagers and reduction of migration in the studied area?
This research is applicable and its method is descriptive-analytic (cross-sectional). Library and field study is used to collect data. The number of people covered by farmers, villagers and nomads’ social insurance in the villages of Badreh county are 448 people which are the statistical community of research. Using Cochrane method 207 people of insured who were mainly head of households have been chosen as the sample of population. For suitable distribution of the sample size among all insured people stratified probability sampling method has been used and this method makes appropriate distribution of the sample in all classes of the community. To assess the reliability of research, SPSS, and Cronbach's alpha method were used that reliability of 844/0 shows high reliability.
Results and discussion
According to the results of the questionnaires, 92.3 percent of respondents were men and 7.7% of respondents were women. Also, 87.4% were married and 12.6% were single. In addition, 27% were illiterate, 30 percent had elementary school degree, 15% had secondary school degree, 19.8% had Diploma and 82% had higher degree. 11 percent of the respondents were farmers, 30% workers, 14.5% shopkeepers, 20.3 percent ranchers, 1 percent welders and 23.2 percent had other jobs. The average age of the respondents was 46 years. To explore the impact of farmers, villagers and nomads’ social insurance on social security and sense of belonging of farmers, villagers and nomads, one-sample T-test was used which shows the significant impact of farmers, villagers and nomads’ social insurance on social security and a sense of belonging of farmers, villagers and nomads.
According to the results of the studied area, the presence of social insurance for farmers, villagers and nomads in the region is necessary to protect the villagers and insurance fund has been able to attract the villagers’ trust which is consistent with the findings of Shafiezadeh et al (2013). The difference is that in the studied area, the adoption of social insurance for farmers, villagers and nomads has been so high. Also in this area, the villagers had not opposed to the insurance scheme and it has been well received but in some cases, payment of insurance has been hampered by the insured and the insured has some expectations from insurance against different accidents and the fund must meet these expectations to create greater trust between them which is consistent with Ramesh’s findings. Also the social insurance of farmers, villagers and nomads in this region has increased social security and sense of belonging which is consistent with Rezvani and et al’s findings (2014) . According to the results, the social insurance of farmers, villagers and nomads in villages of Badreh county, has improved the social security and sense of belonging and also rural migration has been reduced.
Keywords: Social insurance for farmers, villagers and nomads, social security, sense of belonging, Badreh County.