عنوان مقاله [English]
In many countries, particularly in developing states like Iran, there is no spatial justice in development indicators, e.g. in industry sector. This problem results in imbalance in regional development, increased social inequality, and disturbance in environmental equilibrium. The Ardabil Province with a great background in regional spatial planning is faced with the challenge of imbalanced development and imbalanced distribution of development indicators. As it is required to have a spatial planning approach in the development of the regions, it seems necessary to address the patterns of industrial development and spatial distribution of the industrial indices in Ardabil Province. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to measure the spatial justice in distribution of industrial development indicators in the counties of Ardabil.
Materials and methods
The Ardabil Province, with an area of 17800 km2, is located in northwest Iran, 37° 45´ N to 39° 42´ N and 47° 30´ E to 48° 55´ E. The province had 1248488 people in 2011. This study is a descriptive-analytical research in method and also an exploratory and correlation investigation in terms of analysis of the relations among the variables. The data of the study have been gathered from yearbook 2012, population census data of the counties, documents of Iran Statistical Organization, the website of the Small Industries Organization and Industrial Town in 2015. To access and prioritize the counties, we have used 47 indicators. In this research, we have used Electre, variation coefficients of the indices, Moran spatial auto-correlation, Hot Spot method, and geographical weighted regression.
Results and discussion
The results of Moran index have indicated that the index value for small industries is ranged from 0.75 to nearly 1. Z value is up to 17 and the p value is equal to 0. The analysis of Hot-Spots have also indicated that in the clustering the Ardabil Province with Z value of 2.95 and p value of 0.003, in 99% of confidence interval, is the center of industrial concentrations of the province. In other counties with negative Z values and higher p values, the distribution of the industries is random and indicative of low enjoyment of the counties compared with the Ardabil County. The Hot-Spot analysis of the spatial distribution of the active mines showed that Namin County with Z value of 2.3 and p value of 0.01 has the highest enjoyment level of the active mines. The counties of Khalkhaal and Garmi are ranked as the second and the third with z values of 1.06 and 0.24 and the p values of 0.28 and 0.80, respectively. The results of CV method have revealed that the indicators do not have balanced distribution. The results of Electre have also indicated that the counties of Ardabil and Namin ranked 8th and 7th are the enjoyed regions. The counties of Namin, Neyer, Kosar, and Meshkinshahr are somewhat the enjoyed counties of the province. Despite high geographical potentials, the counties of Sarein, Parsabad, Garmi, and Bilesavar, with the scores of 4, 5, 5, 6, and 9, respectively, are incorporated in the class of deprived counties. The results of geographical regression have represented that there are significant relationship in the industrial development of the counties of Namin with the value 1.87, Neyer with the value of 0.7, Ardabil with the value of 0.66, and Kosar with the value of 0.66 in their population. The results have also showed that the industrial development is appropriate with the population development. The relationship is reduced in the counties of Meshkinshahr and Khalkhaal with standard deviation values of 0.17 and 0.06, respectively.
The spatial analysis of the information have revealed that industrial distribution pattern in Ardabil is a clustering pattern. This pattern is mainly resulted from activity of industrial towns in the county and improved infrastructure condition compared with other counties. The results are consistent with the findings of Nastaran and Fatahi about the imbalance in distribution of development indicators and also with the results of Ziari et al. and Ghanbari et al. about the imbalanced development between province center and other counties of the province. The results of this research are also consistent with the results of Rahmati et al. and Hataminejad et al.; as these studies also stated imbalanced development of industries and development opportunities in different counties of a province.
The research has demonstrated that the distribution of the industries in the province has a highly clustered pattern and that the Ardabil County is dominant center in which industrial activities are concentrated. The indicators of industry and mining are unequally distributed in the counties of the province. Although some counties have potential mining and geographical capabilities, they are ranked lower in industrial indices. The spatial distribution of industrial development of the counties of the Ardabil Province represents unequal spatial development in the region. This can also be concluded that there is significant positive relationship in the urbanization, immigration, and population with industrial development. In other words, the higher developed counties in industry have also more population, migration, and urbanization.