بازشناسی رابطۀ فضاهای شهری و حرکت‌های اجتماعی با تمرکز بر شهرهای قاهره، صنعا و منامه

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دوره دکتری شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران

2 دانشیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران

چکیده

بررسی رابطه میان فضاهای شهری و حرکت‌های اجتماعی همواره یکی از دل‌مشغولی‌های اصلی نظریه‌پردازان حوزة مطالعات شهری و جامعه‌شناسی شهری بوده است. هدف اصلی این مقاله فهم جنبه‌های کالبدی فرم شهری و تبیین ارتباط آن با حرکت‌های اجتماعی سال‌های اخیر در شهرهای قاهره، صنعا و منامه در خاورمیانه است. این مقاله با بازخوانی نظرات متأخر اندیشمندان جامعه‌شناسی در گرایش تئوری اجتماعی، به‌صورت اجمالی به تبیین رابطه میان فضاهای شهری و حرکت‌های اجتماعی از این دیدگاه می‌پردازد. این پژوهش در قالب سه مقولة موقعیت جغرافیایی، گونه‌شناسی فضاهای مستعد و آرایش اقشار اجتماعی، به معرفی فضاهای مستعد میزبانی حرکت‌های اجتماعی پرداخته است و با استفاده از دو رویکرد کمی و کیفی، سعی در تبیین ویژگی‌های مشترک فضاهای میزبان حرکت‌های اجتماعی دارد. در این مطالعه سه شهر قاهره، صنعا و منامه به‌عنوان نمونه‌های موردی انتخاب، و سعی شده است با بررسی و تحلیل پیکربندی فضایی آن‌ها و بررسی موقعیت فضاهای میزبان و نیروهای اجتماعی محرک حرکت‌های اجتماعی در این شهرها، ویژگی‌های مشترک این حرکت‌ها شناسایی شود. گفتنی است پیکربندی فضایی نمونه‌های موردی مطالعه، از طریق تهیة نقشة خطی و تحلیل آن از طریق فن چیدمان فضا صورت می‌گیرد. یافته‌های پژوهش در فضاهای موردی مورد مطالعه حاکی از وجود رابطة مستقیم میان خاستگاه حرکت‌های اجتماعی با موقعیت استقرار و فعالیت گروه‌های مشارکت‌کننده است. بررسی‌های نمونه‌های موردی نشان می‌دهد درصورتی‌که حرکت اجتماعی از بطن اکثریت جامعه برگرفته باشد، فضاهای مرکزی گونه میدان در مقایسه با سایر گونه‌های فضاهای شهری، اولویت بیشتری در جذب جمعیت میزبان دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Recognition of the Relation between Urban Spaces and Social Movements with Emphasis on Cairo, Sana’a and Manama

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Elahi 1
  • Seyed Abdolhadi Daneshpour 2
  • Mostafa Abbaszadegan 2
1 PhD Candidate in urban planning & design, school of Architecture and Environmental design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate professor of architecture and environmental design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The recent upsurge of different social movements in Middle East can represents the central role of cities for the social movements. The late months of 2010 were the starting points of the liberation movements among Arab countries in the Middle East. The fall of Tunisian government and democracy leading attempts in Egypt, Bahrain, Yemen, Libya, and Syria based on the news broadcast caused urban spaced such as Tahrir sq. in Cairo, Pearl sq. in Manama and university sq. in Sana’a to be known as the sign of liberalism and social protest against dictatorship, whereas they were completely unknown beforehand.
Putting political parties away, continuity in protest movements happening in public spaces in the Middle East have attracted the attention of many urban planing specialists about the properties of the mentioned spaces. The present study attempt to answer the following questions based on the relations among place, power, and social-political movements.

Is there any meaningful relation between host public spaces and social movements?
Which type of public spaces has got more potential to attract social movements?
What are the similarities and differences among the spaces hosting the social movements in the Middle East?

Thus, three main aspects of Location, Typology of talented spaces, and social class arrangements are used to explain the issues in the three mentioned spaces in Cairo, Manama, and Sana’a.
 
Methodology
Present study is a practical research using blended quantitative-qualitative approach. This is quantitatively investigated through space syntax method as a means of monitoring. The aim of the use of this technique is expression of various aspects of relationship between morphological structure of built environment and the social and spatial structure of events in the city.
The theory of space syntax was proposed by Bill Hillier et al. in the 1970s at the Bartlett School. The theory is a technique for exploring the relationship between space and society. The most important discussion in this theory is an emphasis on the fact that the pattern of a settlement is rooted in the collective life of its users. It is in a way that some social norms of communities can be achieved by analyzing patterns of settlements.
The analysis is conducted based on converting maps to linear graphs and quantifying the spatial qualities of the nodes through the use of mathematical formulae. This method provides a simple operational process for explanation, comparison and translation of settlement patterns.
In this Study, some indexes of space syntax such as global integration (Rn), local integration (R3), synergy and intelligibility were investigated in the axial map and the "choice" value was investigated in the segment map using depthmapX software. 
 
Results and discussion
Content analysis of hosted urban spaces in the three cities shows that they have fundamental objects in common about the following issues:
ü Social movements shaped in squares (public identity type) had higher priority than those shaped in the streets (informal behavior type). The protests are mostly transferred to the street due to the suppression. The best examples are Manama and Sana’a where the protests are transferred to the street.
ü The studied social movements tend to develop in all regions with equal or higher integration than the average integration of entire city. Social movements and social forces in the Middle East have occurred with the participation of majority of the community (superior and inferior groups). We witness the formation of the movement in the areas with higher integration like Central Spaces in Cairo and Sana’a.
ü Intelligibility index analysis in the case studies shows that the majority of the spaces hosted the movements has got higher intelligibility than other parts of the city. While in Sana’a and Cairo there were protests in other parts as well, Tahrir and University squares in both cities include high participation of the protesters.
ü Social movements which have the least support of the majority group or sometimes even opposed by them are divided into superior and inferior groups. Inferior groups are forced away and continue their protests in the spaces with low levels of integration and intelligibility. In these cases, urban areas adjacent to the origin of these forces have been selected. Like Bahraini Shiite protests in Manama’s Pearl sq. or Ekhvans Supporters in Cairo’s Rabaa al-Adawiya Sq.
ü Social movement spaces have been shaped up regarding the priority. Selected spaces in social movements are supported by the majority of the selection criteria as appropriate pedestrian movement. Tahrir square and University square in Sana’a are examples of this.
ü In all cases, the governments attempted to change the existing relations in space, and control the spaces. The Egyptian government failed in its efforts to occupy the space with security forces and paramilitary forces fans. But the Yemeni government occupied the space by force expelling protesters, and the government of Bahrain took stronger action to capture the space.
 
Conclusion
Wave of Islamic awakening movement against authoritarian regimes in Persian Gulf Arab states has provided an opportunity to look at the relationship between space and power, and to study the characteristics of the host spaces in these countries. This paper attempts to examine spatial configuration samples using quantitative indicators to analyze the relationship between space and social arrangements of productive forces of social movements through a different approach.
Examining the hosted spaces in the cities of Cairo, Sana’a and Manama shows that there is a meaningful relationship between the formation of social movements in square-like spaces (accumulation) and squares of urban spaces (gathering space) and that these spaces are more preferable compared with other urban spaces like streets and cafes. 
Public protest experiences in the case studies of this research show that when the social movement considers the support of the majority of social forces, it must be assumed that a space including the properties of space syntax should be considered as the first priority of being chosen as the protest space.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • public space
  • Social Movement
  • Cairo
  • Sana’a
  • Manama

. پارسی، حمیدرضا، 1381، شناخت محتوای فضای شهری، مجلة هنرهای زیبا، شمارة 11، صص 41-49.

2. تانکیس، فرن، 1388، فضا، شهر و نظریة اجتماعی: مناسبات اجتماعی و شکل‌های شهری، ترجمة حمیدرضا پارسی و آرزو افلاطونی، انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.

3. جنکینز، اریک جی، 1394، عرصة عمومی شهر، ترجمة مصطفی اکبری مطلق و شهرام کریمی، نشر طحان.

 

  1. Afary, J. and Anderson, K. B., 2005, Foucault and the Iranian Revolution: Gender and the Seductions of Islamism, University of Chicago Press.
  2. Allan, K. D., 2006, Contemporary Social and Sociological Theory: Visualizing Social Worlds, Pine Forge Press.
  3. Altman, I., 1976, Environment and Social Behavior, Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
  4. Castells, M., 1977, The Urban Question: A Marxist Approach, The MIT Press.
  5. Castells, M., 1984, The City and the Grassroots: A Cross-Cultural Theory of Urban Social Movements, University of California Press.
  6. Dahl, R.,1963, A Preface to democratic theory University Of Chicago Press.
  7. Daniel, 2011, Where does a revolution happen?, At <http://discoveringurbanism.blogspot.com/2011/02/where-does-revolution-happen.html> (accessed April. 25, 2015).
  8. Elshahed, M., 2011, Tahrir Square: Social Media, Public Space, At <http://places.designobserver.com/feature/tahrir-square-social-media-public-space/25108/> (accessed April. 25, 2015).
  9. Engels, F.,1845, The Condition of the Working Class in England, Reprinted by Penguin Classics in (2006).
  10. Finquelievich, S., 1981,Urban social movements and the production of urban space, in Acta Sociologica, Vol 24, No.4, pp. 239-249.
  11. Gehl, J.,1987, Life Between Buildings: Using Public Space, translated by Jo Koch, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
  12. Harvey, D.,1973, Social justice and the city, Edward Arnold press.
  13. Harvey, D., 1985, Consciousness and the urban experience: studies in the history and theory of capitalist urbanization, John Hopkins University press.
  14. Hillier, B., 2007, Space is the machine:The Hidden Geometry of Architecture, Ucl, At <http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/3881/1/SITM.pdf> (accessed April. 25, 2015).
  15. Hillier, B., and Iida, S., 2005, Network effects and psychological effects: a theory of urban movement, Paper presented at the 5th International Space Syntax Symposium, University of Delft.
  16. Jenkins, Eric J., 2015, To Scale: One Hundred Urban Plans, translated by Akbari motlagh, M. and Karimi, Sh., Tahan Publication. (In Persian)
  17. Johnston, R.J., et al. (eds), 2000, The Dictionary of Human Geography, Wiley-Blackwell.
  18. Kivisto, P., 2010, Social Theory: Roots and Branches, Oxford University Press.
  19. Lefebvre, H., 1991, The Production of Space, Translated by Nicholson, D., Blackwell.
  20. Marx, K., 1886, Das Kapital: Kritik der politischen Oekonomie,Reprinted by Adamant Media Corporation (2002).
  21. Marx, K. and Engels, F., 1846, The communist manifesto, Contributer: Martin malia, Reprinted by Signet Classics (1998).
  22. Merchant, B., 2015, Can Public Places be Engineered to be Revolution-Proof?, At <http://utopianist.com/2011/04/can-public-places-be-engineered-to-be-revolution-proof/> (accessed April. 25, 2015).
  23. Moore, G. T., Tuttle D. P. and Howell, C. S. (eds.) 1985, Environmental design research directions, process and prospects, Praeger Special Studies, NewYork.
  24. Parsi, H., 2002, Cognition Content of Urban Space, Journal of Fine Arts, , No11 , pp. 41-49. (In Persian)
  25. Rapoport, A., 1977, Human Aspects of urban form: Toward a man,environment approach to form and design, Pergamon, Oxford.
  26. Sanderson, SK, 2006, Reforming theoretical work in sociology: A modest proposal, Perspectives, 28:2.
  27. Setha M. and Low. A., 2000, On the Plaza: The Politics of Public Space and Culture, University of Texas Press.
  28. Shangapour, S., Hosseini, S. and Hashemnejad, H., 2011, Cyber Social Networks and Social Movements, Global Journal of Human Social Science, Vol.11, No.1, pp.1-15 At <http://globaljournals.org/GJHSS_Volume11/1_Cyber_Social_Networks_and_Social_Movements.pdf> (accessed April. 25, 2015).
  29. Smith, C., 2003, Whose Streets?: Urban Social Movements and the Politicization of Space, At <http://www.bp.com/statistical review> (accessed April. 25, 2015).
  30. Soja, E., 1989, Postmodern Geographies: The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theor’, Verso Press.
  31. Soja, E., 2010, Seeking Spatial Justice, University of Minnesota Press.
  32. Tonkiss, F., 2009, space the city and social theory, translated by: Parsi, H. and Aflatouni, A. Tehran University Publication. (In Persian)
  33. Turner, A., 2007, From axial to road-centre lines: a new representation for space syntax and a new model of route choice for transport network analysis, Environment and Planning B: planning and Design,   Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 539-555.