عنوان مقاله [English]
Rural housing is a social, cultural, economic, and physical phenomenon developed to provide required conditions for living. Main function of housing, in addition to being a shelter, is to provide good conditions for family to fulfill their activities. In recent years, rural housing as a physical and cultural element has vastly changed. This cultural element, in addition to its resident role, is considered as a part of working and production space as well as storing space for life requirements. In recent decades, rural housing has sustained considerable changes and the main role of housing is related to family living and economic activities.. This study as a descriptive-analytic research has quantitative (statistic) methods to analyze field data.
One of the most important concerns for many people is sustainable development of human community. In such strategy, optimal use of resources without destruction has a significant importance. One of the components of the human development is to provide suitable housing appropriate for human dignity without destructing natural resources. Planning for housing development by providing appropriate houses, must pay attention to ecological components. In order to achieve such program, we have to well understand dimensions and factors affecting housing and level of their demands. Because of current situation in each society, housing needs are different and vary greatly based on personal characteristics, social status, ideological conditions, and secio-economic status. Therefore, housing status varies in accordance with physical situation of each environment as well as technical and economic facilities. These changes must be identified and attended.
This study with an analytic-descriptive research method and quantitative (statistic) techniques were used for analysis of field data. The data of theis research have been gathered by questionnaires. Questions were asked in two ways, some of them were asked in form of three-spectral Likert scale (consistent, relatively consistent , inconsistent) and the others were asked with “Yes” or “No” answers. For the analysis by descriptive statistic methods, like centrality indices such as frequency and percent, we have used SPSS. Statistical population is the rural residents in Mazandaran Province. We have selected 31 villages as sample of the research. Total population of the selected village was 4377. The sample size is determined 465 by Cochran formula.
Results and discussion
Based on the results, two aspects of changes can be observed in the rural houses of the study area. First, changes in economic function of the house are including a space for livestock, forage, storing fossil fuels, and parking space. The past rural houses were completely appropriate to family economy and in designing house the local people considered required spaces for each economic activity. Given that in the past, the economic activities of most villages in Mazandaran were depended on farming and animal husbandry, the required spaces for storing crops and maintenance of agricultural tools as well as keeping livestock were embedded. Today, with diminishing agriculture and mechanizing agricultural processes, farmers need not many spaces for farming. On the other hand, under the influence of inappropriate decisions of policy-makers, livestock has removed from rural family economic. As a result, the need for economic spaces has decreased.
The second type of changes can be observed in social function of the houses including a separated kitchen, an open kitchen, bedrooms, a separated reception room and porch (a partition between indoor and outdoor). In the past, there was a particular space for baking and cocking in a rural house outdoor. The outdoor location of the baking tool was mainly because of of the fact that they usually used firewood for baking and, thus, by its outdoor location they could keep the smokes and food smell away from the indoor environment.
Today thanks to new facilities like firedamp and air conditioning, the kitchen is transferred to indoor. Today under influence of urban culture affected by western housing pattern, the traditional kitchens are replaced by open kitchens which are irrelevant to Iranian culture, especially in Mazandaran village. In the past, because of financial problems of building a house and old rural traditions, number of bedroom were limited, but today because of economic improvement of rural families and changes in attitudes of parents and children for having separated space, villagers has built more bedrooms in their houses.
The quantitative (statistic) methods were used to analyze field data. In this study, information was gathered by questionnaires. The statistic population of this research was rural communities in Mazandaran Province in three types including coastal: 7, foothill: 12, mountainous: 12. By use of Cochran’ formula, it was determined to have 465 samples.
It can be stated that some changes are happened in the village resulted from changes in economic and social conditions in the villages which include change in dedicated space for livestock, forage, place of baking bread, storing of fossil fuels, separated kitchen& bedroom, open kitchen, separated reception room and porch. These changes are consequences of physical and service development in villages and also the influence of urban culture in villages which finally resulted in changes in economic and social function of the rural houses.