عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, increasing tendency of using cars instead of walking to public transport has increased environmental pollution. The air pollution in many countries of the world, especially big cities in Iran, is so critical that it forced the government to take serious policies and make short term and long term programs. In a different perspective, it is necessary to think about these problems. Urban planners dependent on their views on this issue have taken transit-oriented development approach. This approach has been considered in urban planning from the 1970s in USA among policymakers and researchers in the field of planning and urban design. Citizens are encouraged to use public transportation in the areas with mixed-use residential, commercial and office near a node or transit stops (bus, subway, etc.). If implemented properly, this type of planning can bring many benefits, including reduction in transport costs, reduction in congestion, sustainability and urban vitality, open shape in development of cities and etc. In Iran, using public transportation has benefits in the cities, especially big cities. The plans have been implemented in these areas. In Tehran, large-scale projects such as metro and bus systems were highly operating; but development of such systems requires understanding the effectiveness in various dimensions. The aim of this study is to answer questions about the operation of the bus system in Tehran to find out the framework for transit-oriented development approach and its physical properties. One of habitable transit-oriented development quality objectives in this study is that air pollution. We attempts to understand the relationships between air pollution zoning in Tehran and the requirements of transit-oriented development approach.
The aim of this study is applied in terms of development and descriptive-analytical methods with an approach outlining the concepts to determine the consistency of fuzzy clustering technique using two physical features. To evaluate the viability of the relationship between quality objectives in this study, air pollution is taken into account. Using fuzzy clustering and interpolation of air pollution zoning maps, we have taken transit-oriented development approach to the bus system.
Result and discussion
The results showed the adaptability of transit-oriented development approach in different lines. In mixing land uses, except in the areas of north and northeast and southeast Tehran there is a greater extent than mixing appropriate user. In other areas, especially in the east, southeast and southwest between stations there are smaller cases. The mixing member further includes a separate application that is enclosed within residential applications. The composition and distribution of inappropriate land use leads to internalization of trips in the development area. Thus, it can create demand for travel and the subsequent parking. The population density is only half in northern, northeastern, southern and western edges as good density. This is due to the following areas of immediate gate stations where passengers can easily have access to transportation lines. There are the most convenient connections between people with access to the use of public transport and reducing the desire to travel by car. In the final map resulted from combination of two layers of integrated land use and population density, we reduced population density in the areas of 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 20 and mixed use transit-oriented development approach in conformity with the requirements. In the second part, after zoning map pollution in Tehran for six key pollutants over the past 5 years, the results indicated critical situations in terms of air quality in the zones of 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 20. After comparing pollution hazard map with the map of requirements of transit-oriented approach, we can see the areas with unfavorable air quality.
It can be stated that providing requirements of the approach to development of transport system of buses around the major lines was an obstacle to achieve the goals. In some areas, the components and parameters of transport system have a great impact on the amount of pollution. Accordingly, different areas of Tehran in terms of transport indicators and the type of passages, per capita lamps, LED density, percent of networks and parking space have different roles in air pollution. It is essential in these plans to utilize the requirements of this development pattern and to take advantages of this form of development as a successful and effective way in reducing traffic congestion. It is proposed to see the metropolitan Tehran and other large cities in these projects and the development of comprehensive plans in order to establish successful and effective solutions to decrease traffic congestion and social development.