سنجش مؤلفه‌های شخصیت در گرایش روستاییان به کارآفرینی (مورد مطالعاتی: شهرستان خدابنده)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تهران

3 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

کمک به توسعة روستاها و خروج از مشکلات جاری در زمینه‌های اقتصادی، اجتماعی-فرهنگی و زیست‌محیطی، نیازمند گرایش به عرصه‌های نوین و کارآمد است. یکی از این عرصه‌ها کارآفرینی است که شناخت نگرش روستاییان و درک آنان از ویژگی‌های شخصیتی برای ورود به این عرصه بسیار ضروری است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف سنجش مؤلفه‌های شخصیت در گرایش روستاییان به کارآفرینی، در بخش مرکزی شهرستان خدابنده بررسی شده است. این پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی است و گردآوری اطلاعات به‌صورت میدانی به­وسیلۀ پرسشنامه صورت گرفته است. جامعة آماری پژوهش شامل روستاییان دهستان حومه و بخش مرکزی شهرستان، و نمونة مورد بررسی شامل روستاهای زواجر، شیخ‌الو، بیجقین و توپ‌قره با مجموع 1039 خانوار است. در این پژوهش، 348 نفر از روستاهای مذکور به‌عنوان نمونة مورد مطالعه، براساس فرمول کوکران تعیین شدند و شاخص‌های مؤلفۀ شخصیت شامل موارد زمینه‌ای، توانایی‌های درونی، امیال فردی، برداشت‌های فردی و توانایی‌های ارتباطی افراد بررسی شد. برای آزمون فرضیات، از روش‌های آماری T و آزمون F در نرم‌افزار Spss استفاده شد. نتایج نشان می­دهد روستاییان از میان مؤلفه‌های شخصیت، به شاخص امیال و برداشت فردی برای ورود به کارآفرینی گرایش دارند. همچنین مطابق نتایج، تحصیلات، کسب سود، اراده و پشتکار، و آشنایی با منابع اطلاعاتی، مهم‌ترین نماگرها در هر شاخص به­شمار می­آیند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Personal Character Components on Villagers’ Attitude to Entrepreneurial Activity (Case Study, Central District, Khodabandeh City)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Salmani 1
  • Mahdi Hajilou 2
  • Amir Talkhab 3
1 Associate professor of geography and rural planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD candidate in geography and rural planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 MA in geography and rural planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Given the development of villages and appearance of many problems in the economic, socio-cultural, environmental conditions, it seems necessary to analyze social properties of urban areas. In this study, we have distributed e-survey questionnaire for data collection. The population of this study includes rural villages. Khodabandeh city consists of 21 villages including Zavajer, Sheikh Aloo, Bejeghen and Toop Ghareh with a total population of 3752 people and 1039 families that have been studied in this research. The villages are in the two groups with a population of more than thousand people and a population of less than one thousand. Therefore, in this study the city Khodabandeh, Central District and suburban district have been analyzed in terms of access to the city center. 
 
Methodology
In this study, the method of the reference survey questionnaire was a general recognition of the importance of this kind of research that leads to the alumni situation. A questionnaire was used for data collection; study population consists of villagers and suburbs, the central districts. The Khodabande has 21 villages, among these villages, four villages with a total population of 3752 people and 1039 households have been studied. It is noteworthy that in the selection of the target population, special villages has been selected; this means that the two groups in the study area were villages with a population of more than thousand people and a population with less than one thousand people. For example, two villages in each group were examined. Up to 348 samples have been selected on the basis of randomly selection sampling. We have analyzed the data obtained from the questionnaire using T-Test and one-way analysis of variance and post hoc test DUNCAN ONE WAY ANOVA and correlation by SPSS. Based on the validity, before completing the questionnaire for pre-test study, 15 villages were evaluated by professors and experts. 
Results and discussion
The descriptive results of questionnaire data show that with relation to the gender characteristics of respondents, 69.4% of respondents were male and 30.6 percent were women. Given the characteristics of the age of respondents, the results represents that 29.1 percent of people aged 17-20 years old and  40.3 percent was  21-30 years old , 18.3% 31-40 years , 8.6% aged 41-50 years, and, 3.4 percent was more than 51 years old. Also concerning the academic level of respondents, the results indicates that 13.1% of respondents has less education, 33.6% school diploma, 26.5 % diploma degree, 22 % has a Bachelor degree and finally 4.9 % are graduates and higher education. The results depict that between internal communication variables, there has been a significant positive correlation in skills, education, and age of individual desires, development-oriented, profit, gain power, and prestige.
 
Conclusion
Entrepreneurship can be a new approach to solve rural problems and the crises originating from various factors including immigration due to unemployment. The approach requires a new productive view for the transition of these chaotic circumstances. In this regard, entrepreneurship has been recognized as the most important remedy for contributing the growth and development of rural areas. Therefore, the results showed that the total villages as well as the personal components  were evaluated in four dimensions. The villagers tend to do more entrepreneurial activities and desire to meet their individual needs. Furthermore, the underlying index includes the items such as birth and childhood conditions in comparison with other indicators. The main focus should be on the effects of entrepreneurship as much as possible with the following personal features. In fact, the talent and ability to believe and to wait for the conditions are not dependent on environmental features.  Personality factors results showed that there is a link between these indicators. Thus, if one of the measurements fails, its negative impact on other indicators can be expected. The villagers' tendency to gain entrepreneurial activity will not succeed. The entrepreneurship, the achievement, and satisfaction will be effective on the success of the progress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • rural attitudes
  • personal characteristics
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Khodabandeh City
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