عنوان مقاله [English]
In recent decades, tourism has had a growing trend, and increasingly affected on national economies. Due to globalization, tourism importance is increasing and gets particular attention in economic and social development plans of countries, to have a suitable position in attracting tourist by using existing potential and capacities. In our country, planners and decision makers are trying to develop tourism. For example, in Isfahan, they seek to use geographical, historical, natural and cultural capabilities to develop urban tourism. Tourism patterns must be analyzed and discussed because by recognizing and exploring spatial distribution of tourism spaces, the city development can be leaded and also tourism can be developed. Spatial analysis with multi-criteria methods is used to explore these patterns and evaluate site selection of urban tourism spaces by using Geographic Information System. So, due to exploring the pattern of urban tourism spaces, the priority areas for future site selection and the priority areas for providing tourist’s facilities will be specified. The aim of this study is to determine desirability of site selection of new urban tourism spaces in Isfahan.
In this paper, descriptive- analytic method have been used. This paper is applicable, which will be done in a systematic sight because of interaction between tourism spaces and tourism development. For mapping, measuring and analyzing the spatial pattern of urban tourism spaces in Isfahan, data as type of new urban tourism spaces and number of tourists are collected. This data was in form of census statistics and maps. To analyze the desirability of site selection of urban tourism spaces, the maps of accessibility of slightly criteria (5 items) have been reclassified with the same weight and overlaid. By using M index, the spatial autocorrelation has been determined. Also by using G index high/low clustering of new urban tourism have been discussed. Cluster and outlier analysis and hotspot analysis also have been done by the factors of inverse Euclidean distance between new tourism urban spaces and rate of accessibility to tourism facilities. Natural neighbor analysis defined priority areas of future tourism space site selection; and by using mean center analysis the priority area to provide tourist’s facilities have been specified. The study area is Isfahan city in the center of Iran.
Results and Discussion
City tourism resources include 3 major parts; 1. primary elements of tourism: the main factors of attracting tourists such as historic streets, parks, monuments and places which are built for tourism activities, such as theater, art galleries and so on; 2. Secondary elements such as residential spaces, infrastructure and so on; 3. Other elements which guide and service tourists such as tourist guide offices etc. Urban tourism spaces have different classification based on activity, target, distribution and so on. Tourism spaces according to tourist attraction can be classified into 4 categories: Natural spaces, historical and cultural spaces, leisure recreational spaces and residential areas. Sometimes these residential spaces become part of attraction to attract tourists. According to statistics of Isfahan Cultural Heritage, Handcrafts and Tourism Organization, the newest urban tourism space in Isfahan is leisure recreational space.
Spatial analysis is one of the most reliable methods of location studies, because this method is essentially applicable, critical, seeker and evaluator. This analysis is one of first steps in any kind of environmental planning because of its comprehensive and systematic view. Urban spaces are one of the destinations for tourists and it should satisfy the tourist’s needs such as accessing to hotel, road network, parking, green spaces to relaxing and therapeutic land use. To determine the accessibility of these 5 items, Data layers have been buffered in 3 range of access to the criteria reviewed. The layers have been reclassified in the same weight and overlaid. The JahanNama indoor amusement park had access to all 5 items reviewed and seems the best site selection for tourists. According to this analysis site selection of Jahan Nama indoor amusement park is quite favorable, Ghadir garden recreational complex, Nazhwan chairlift and reptile garden are favorable, aquatic complex, Soffeh amusement and City Center complex are unfavorable and other spaces are quite unfavorable.
The spatial autocorrelation of new urban tourism has been calculated by Moran Index and the score was 0/.73 at %95 level of confidence, this score is close to 1 that means site selections are spatially correlated, not sporadically, have an integrated relationship and also the distribution of new tourism spaces is symmetric. Cluster and outlier analysis showed that JahanNama indoor amusement park and Ghadir garden recreational complex are clustered and surrounded by similar spaces that are in same level of accessing to services; and other tourism spaces were not significant. G index was 0 that shows new tourism urban spaces are high clustered at %95 level of confidence. Finally, the hotspot of new tourism spaces was identified: JahanNama indoor amusement park; and other tourism spaces were not significant. This tourism space possesses all of the criteria investigated in this study. Due to analyses carried out, the central areas of Isfahan are prior for future site selection of tourism spaces with this distribution of tourist’s facilities and infrastructure. And site selection out of prior areas need infrastructure to be able to develop urban tourism. The mean center analysis of new urban tourism unlike previous analyzes based on lack of access to needed services and infrastructure. This analysis shows the area, which needs to be equipped for tourists, such as parkings or public transportation stations. This area is around southern half of Isfahan.