ارزیابی و سنجش فضایی محیط‌زیست شهری با رویکرد شهر سبز (مطالعة موردی: کلان‌شهر تهران)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تربیت‌مدرس

2 استادیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری دانشگاه تربیت‌مدرس

3 دانشیار گروه محیط‌زیست دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

برنامه‌ریزی و مدیریت شهری در شهر سبز برمبنای مدیریت اکولوژیکی است که با تطبیق شاخص‌های زیست‌محیطی به‌دنبال پایداری اکولوژیکی و به‌تبع آن توسعة پایدار شهری است. تهران از جمله شهرهایی است که در دهه‌های اخیر به‌دلیل تمرکز شدید، ازدحام ترافیک، آلودگی هوا و افزایش منابع آلوده‌کنندة محیط‌زیست، فشار اکولوژیکی گسترده‌ای بر طبیعت وارد کرده است. در پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی حاضر با هدف شناسایی شاخص‌های شهر سبز، به ارزیابی و مقایسة وضعیت زیست‌محیطی شهر تهران پرداخته شد. جامعة آماری شهرهای آسیایی و مناطق 22گانة تهران است. وضعیت هریک از شاخص‌ها نیز به تفکیک مناطق از منابع کتابخانه‌ای و مراجعات سازمانی جمع‌آوری شده است. روش این پژوهش در دو گام اصلی طراحی و تدوین شده است. در ابتدا برای تعیین و شناخت میزان سبزبودن شهر تهران، با استفاده از مدل تحلیل شبکه‌ای فازی و مدل رتبه‌بندی ویکور، جایگاه این شهر در میان شهرهای آسیایی تعیین و اولویت‌بندی شد. سپس با استناد به اوزان اختصاصی شاخص‌ها و مدل ویکور، رتبه‌بندی هریک از مناطق 22 گانة شهر تهران صورت گرفت تا اهمیت هریک از آن‌ها در وضعیت کنونی شهر تهران مشخص شود. براساس نتایج، شهر تهران با قرارگیری در رتبة پانزدهم شهرهای آسیایی از منظر شهر سبز، وضعیت نسبتاً نامطلوبی دارد. همچنین بررسی وضعیت زیست‌محیطی با رویکرد شهر سبز در میان مناطق تهران نشان می‌دهد مناطق 1، 4 و 8 در بهترین وضعیت و مناطق 10، 11 و 12 در بدترین وضعیت قرار دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial Evaluation of Urban Environment with Green City Approach (Case Study: Tehran Metropolis)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Shabani 1
  • Seyyed Ali Alavi 2
  • Abolfazl Meshkini 2
  • Abdol Rasul Salman Mahini 3
1 PhD Candidate in Geography and Urban Planning, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction   
With rapid growth of the urban population of the world and increasing concern about the environmental issues, the challenge of making urban societies more sustainable have attracted the attention of many designers, academics and government officials.
The 3E approach examine urban development within the context of economy (the competitive city), equity (the inclusive city), and environment (the green city). Each initiative has the key components for achieving such a city to support the other, providing the basis for sustainable urban development.
There are many approaches of sustainability including green city, eco city and livable city. Each approach is focusing on specific issues of sustainability. Green cities are defined as the cities striving to lessen their environmental impacts by reducing waste, expanding recycling, lowering emissions, increasing housing density while expanding open space, and encouraging the development of sustainable local businesses. 
Green city concept in the late twentieth century was outlined as one solution to reduce urban environmental problems in the cities to achieve sustainable urban development. Given that Tehran is faced with critical air pollution, urban density, rapid population growth and the ever increasing uncontrolled sources of pollution, it seems necessary to study the status of Tehran based on the indicators of Green City. This can be a suitable approach for planning and achieving environmental sustainability and sustainable urban development in the future.
Methodology
The aim of this study was to assess the environmental status of Tehran using Green City Index. The method used in this study has been designed and developed in two main steps. The first step is to determine and identify the emergence of Tehran, as discussed among Asian cities. To identify Green City Index, we have used fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making models to assess the effects (weight) of each index. We attempted to prioritize and determine the position of Tehran among Asian cities. In the second step, after the recognition of green in the city of Tehran, we have assigned specific weights to each of the indices of Green City in the first stage using VIKOR ranking. We also attempted to rank and prioritize each of the 22 districts of Tehran based on the areas identified in the current situation in Tehran.
Results and discussion  
Today, cities play a considerable role in environmental degradation that has led to an unstable ecosystem. Planning and urban management approaches of green city are based on ecological management with the implementation of environmental indicators of ecological sustainability and sustainable urban development.
The results showed that the weight of carbon dioxide is 0.1836, transportation 0.1585, and air quality 0.1494 among the most important indicators. We have used VIKOR Technique and Fuzzy Analytical Network Process (FANP) for weighting in the index. This showed that Tehran is ranked fifteenth among selected Asian cities as a relatively unfavorable position. Tehran is faced with negative factors such as the release of CO2 (8.7 tons / person), population density (12,411 people / km²) and water loss (percent) higher than the average, as well as positive measures such as energy share of GDP (3 / 4) and per capita green area (6/15 m). It has access to sewerage, and sewage treatment rate has been lower than average. The city in indices of per capita waste generation, water consumption and particulate matter is relatively well compared to the average Asian cities. Among the 22 districts of Tehran, the districts of 10, 11 and 12 has the lowest ranking of the environmental status of the green. In other words, the eastern areas of Tehran relative to central and western regions of the urban landscape are better in green indices. In contrast, the central areas due to population density, increased traffic, increased air pollution, and more carbon dioxide emissions are worse among other parts of Tehran.
Conclusion
The major strategies to achieve and reach the green in Tehran, it is possible to reduce municipal solid waste, energy efficiency, conservation of urban ecosystems, the development of sustainable transport, air pollution control, sustainable urbanism and green building and plan for quality improvement environmental issues. We can move toward sustainability principles to achieve green city using public participation, public transport, green and efficient energy saving, waste management, use of renewable energy, reconstruction of buildings, and use of efficient technologies, development of more pedestrian and cycling routes, local policy, and a council to protect the environment, environmental education of citizens (from primary schools to parents and citizens), a collaboration of institutions and organizations and implementing preventive laws. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • green city
  • urban environment
  • Fuzzy Analytical Network Process (FANP)
  • Vikor
  • Tehran
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