شناسایی و اولویت‏ بندی قابلیت ‏های گردشگری در مناطق کویری و بیابانی استان قم

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری تخصصی جغرافیای ‏سیاسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه جامع امام حسین (ع)

3 کارشناس‏ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه ‏ریزی شهری دانشگاه خوارزمی

4 دانشیار جغرافیا و برنامه ‏ریزی شهری، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

استان قم،یکی از استان‏های کویری و بیابانی کشور، دارای منابع بالقوه برای توسعة گردشگری در نواحی کویری و بیابانی است. براین اساس، در مقالةحاضر به شناسایی، نحوةتوزیع فضایی جاذبه‏های گردشگری در مناطق کویریو بیابانیاستان قم،و اولویت‏بندی این قابلیت‏ها برای توسعة این نوع از گردشگری پرداخته شده است. روش تحقیق توصیفی-تحلیلی و روش جمع‏آوری اطلاعات کتابخانه‏ای و میدانی (پرسش‏نامه و مشاهده و بازدید میدانی) است. نتایج حاصل از مدل Getis-Ord نشان می­دهد پراکنش فضایی جاذبه‏های گردشگری کویر و بیابان در استان قم از الگوی خوشه‏ای پیروی می‏کند و این خوشه‏ها را می‏توان در سهناحیه از استان مشاهده کرد: 1. حوالی اتوبان قم-تهران (به شعاع 10 کیلومتر)؛2. حوالی اتوبان قم-کاشان (به شعاع 10 کیلومتر)؛3. نواحی اطراف شهر قم (به شعاع 20 کیلومتر). همچنین،نتایج مدل الکتر نشان می‏دهد در مقایسةنسبی قابلیت‏های توسعة گردشگری در مناطق کویریو بیابانیاستان قم، در اولویت یکم سه قابلیت قرار گرفته که عبارت‏اند از:«گردشگری علمی»، «امکان جذب سرمایه‏های دولتی و بخش خصوصی در ارتباط با انواع توریسم» و «توان اکوتوریستی». در اولویت دوم، دو قابلیت با امتیاز یکسان قرار گرفته‏اند که شامل «گردشگری ماجراجویانه» و «گردشگری ورزشی و برگزاری انواع مسابقات ورزشی» می‏شود. درنهایت،در اولویت سوم نیز سه قابلیت قرار دارد که عبارت‏اند از:«ایجاد زیرساخت‏ها و مجموعه‏ای مناسب برای برگزاری برنامه‏های فرهنگی و هنری»، «بازدید گردشگران از جاذبه‏های این مناطق در قالب تورهای گردشگری» و در نهایت«احداث شهرک درمانی یا سلامت».

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identify and prioritize potential of tourism in desert areas and wilderness of Qom

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sayed Mostafa hashemi 1
  • Abbas Alipour 2
  • Mohsen Yousefi Feshki 3
  • Mir Najaf Mousavi 4
1 South research branch Islamic Azad University,
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Introduction
In today's world, tourism is one of the most important tools for governments to introduce their culture to other nations using cultural, economic, social and security. One of the fundamental principles in tourism development, identification and efficient use of resources and capacities of tourism in the host society. Given that most of Iran's territory is desert, recognizing and principled way to utilize the full potential of deserts and desert, a crucial requirement of tourism development and economic and social development of the region and even the whole country. So far, there has not been fully recognize the attraction of desert areas and be more precise studies on the characteristics of these attractions as well as appropriate infrastructure for the development of the industry carried out in desert areas. Qom province as a province of desert country, has potential resources for tourism development in desert areas and wastelands. Accordingly, this paper is to identify, spatial distribution of desert and wilderness tourist attractions the province and prioritize the capabilities to develop this type of tourism is addressed.

Methodology
The research method is descriptive - analytical and objective is applied. A library and field data collection (using questionnaires and site visits and direct observation) been carried out. Questionnaires using the Delphi method has been completed by experts including employees Administration of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Qom, managers and senior staff of travel agencies and tourism city of Qom, Qom Province leaders, professors and students of tourism in Qom Province. To study the spatial distribution of tourist attractions Qom province of Getis-Ord model is used and to prioritize capacity in developing desert tourism in tourism and achieve productive economy, the ELECTRE model is used.

Results and discussion
According to the findings of the questionnaires and surveys and field visits, Qom Province capabilities to develop tourism in desert areas is classified in 8: 1) settlements or health care; 2) adventure tourism; 3) scientific tourism; 4) sport tourism and held a variety of sports competitions; 5) Tourists visit the attractions of this region in terms of tours; 6) infrastructure and set suitable for artistic and cultural events; 7) be ecotourism and 8) the possibility of attracting public and private investments in relation to the types of tourism. In examining the spatial distribution of tourist attractions Qom province Getis-Ord model results indicated that the Zscore higher than 2.58 and equal to 17.76 is obtained the confidence level (P-value) 0.99 Distribution tourist attractions are clustered in Qom. The focus (clusters) are concentrated in three regions of Qom province that includes: 1) highway near Qom - Tehran (radius of 10 km); 2) highway near Qom - Kashan (radius of 10 km) and 3) the area around the city of Qom (radius of 20 km).
Finally prioritization capabilities desert and wilderness tourism in the province based on 86 expert show The relative capabilities in tourism development in desert and wilderness of Qom, the first priority was Three capabilities that include: "Scientific tourism" with a score of ( 5 ), "the possibility of attracting public and private investments in connection with a variety of tourism" with a score of ( 3 ), and "ecotourism" with a score of ( 1 ). The second priority, two capability the same score ( -3 ) are to include "adventure tourism" and "sport tourism and held a variety of sports competitions". The third priority tourism development capabilities in desert and wilderness of Qom three capability with an included "infrastructure and set suitable for artistic and cultural events" and "Tourists visit the attractions of this region in terms of tours" with a score of ( -5 ) and finally "settlements or health care" with a score of ( -7 ) are the last priority.

Conclusion
Tourism with minimal pollution can lead to the development of sustainable and the significant achievements and financial security they provide. For this reason, the development of tourism as one of the components and measures are developed at a global level. Iran general and Qom specifically despite its attractions and capabilities of this subject is not innocent And will be able to optimize the use of existing capabilities and the expansion of facilities and the removal of barriers, in order to achieve an effective strides forward. Approach to religious authorities in Qom and tourism industry operators, as well as indirect support and advocacy officials atmosphere, all made to be used all the functionality Tourism Or possibly in their assessment of many activities that do not fit in the framework ignored. The result of this approach to development of tourism, one hundred percent control density tourism activities in the city of Qom Province with a religious approach and neglect of our abilities province. Continuation of this trend is not consistent with the principles and criteria for sustainable development The findings showed Qom province due to additional features and in particular natural and historical endowments, could be positive background of many legitimate activities and leisure - Tourism in the desert and wilderness areas in order to respond to the needs of leisure and other provinces and even other countries in the region provide a wide range And lead to more consistency tourists. Results showed there a lot of potential resources in desert areas Qom Province that they can use to organize and latent demand for the use of their native said, and also provide a potential target markets for tourism in the province to create diversity and distribution of tourists in the province just focused on several specific points that are currently not and the level of facilities. This will first and foremost lead to sustainable development and led some deserted areas of the capital and credit resources will increase.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Desert and wilderness tourism
  • Tourism potential
  • Qom
  • Spatial distribution
  • electric model
  1. ابراهیم زاده، عیسی؛ کاظمی زاد، شمس‏اله؛ و اسکندری ثانی، محمد (1390). برنامه‏ریزی استراتژیک توسعة گردشگری، با تأکید بر گردشگری مذهبی (مطالعة موردی: شهر قم)، پژوهش‏های جغرافیای انسانی، 43(۷۶): ۱۱۵-141.
  2. پاپلی یزدی، محمدحسین و سقایی، مهدی (1393). گردشگری (ماهیت و مفاهیم)، تهران: سمت.
  3. جهانیان، منوچهر و زندی، ابتهال (1389). بررسی پتانسیل‏های اکوتوریسم مناطق کویری و بیابانی اطراف استان یزد، با استفاده از الگوی تحلیل SWOT، پژوهش‏های جغرافیای انسانی، 42(۷۴): ۶۱-74.
  4. خلیلی، سعید (1393). تحلیل نقش استانداردسازی دفاتر خدمات مسافرتی در توسعة گردشگری (مورد: دفاتر خدمات مسافرتی استان تهران)، پایان‏نامة کارشناسی ارشد، رشتة جغرافیا و برنامه‏ریزی توریسم، دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران.
  5. زاهدی، شمس‏السادات (1385). مبانی توریسم و اکوتوریسم پایدار (با تأکید بر محیط زیست)، انتشارات دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.
  6. سازمان مدیریت و برنامه‏ریزی استان قم (1388). سالنامه آماری استان قم، معاونت آمار و اطلاعات.
  7. سازمان مدیریت و برنامه‏ریزی کشور (1383). مطالعات آمایش سرزمین، دفتر آمایش و توسعة پایدار.
  8. فرید، یدالله (1368). جغرافیا و شهرشناسی، دانشگاه تبریز.
  9. مرکز آمار ایران (1392). سالنامةآماری استان قم.
  10. موسوی، میرنجف و حکمت‏نیا، حسن (1390). کاربرد مدل در جغرافیا با تأکید بر برنامه‏ریزی شهری و ناحیه‏ای، یزد: علم نوین.
  11. مؤمنی، منصور (1387). مباحث نوین تحقیق در عملیات، چ ۲، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
12. Country Management and Planning Organization (2004). Land Management Studies, Sustainable Development and Planning Office (In Persian).

13. Ebrahimzadeh, I.; Kazemi Zad, Sh. and Eskandari Sani, M. (2011). Strategic Planning for Tourism Development, with Emphasis on Religious Tourism (Case Study: Qom City), Human Geography Research, 43(76): 115-141 (in Persian).

14. Farid, Y. (1989). Geography and Urbanism, University of Tabriz (In Persian).

15. Fennell, D. (2009). Ecotourism An intro duction, Routledge pub.

16. Jahanian, M. and Zandi, A. (2010). Investigation of Ecotourism Potentials of Desert Areas Around Yazd Province, Using SWOT Analysis Model, Human Geographical Research, Volume, 42(74): 61-74 (In Persian).

17. Kesten Cuhls, G.; Scott, A. and Andreas, G. (2007). Methods to Elicit Forecasts from Groups: Delphi and Prediction Markets Compared, Munich Personal Repec Archive, https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/4663/1/MPRA_paper_4663.pdf.

18. Khalili, S. (2014). Analysis the role of standardization of travel services offices in tourism development (Case: Tehran Travel agencies), Department of Geography and Tourism Planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran (In Persian).

19. Linston, H. and Murray, T. (1975). Introduction to the Delphi Method: Techniques and Applications, London: Addison-Wesley.

20. Mo'meni, M. (2008). New Research Topics in Operation, 2nd Edition, Tehran: Tehran University Press (In Persian).

21. Mousavi, MN. and Hekmatnia, H. (2011). Application of Model in Geography with Emphasis on Urban and Regional Planning, Yazd: Modern Science (In Persian).

22. Papoli Yazdi, MH. and Saghaei, M. (2014). Tourism (Nature and Concepts), Tehran: Samt (In Persian).

23. Qom Province Management and Planning Organization (2009). Statistical Yearbook of Qom Province, Deputy of Statistics and Information (In Persian).

24. Skulmoski, G.; Hartman, F. and Krahn, J. (2007). The Delphi Method for Graduate Research, Journal of Information, 6: 1-23.

25. Smid, S. (2002). Tourism On Cyprus Study on The Situation Of En Terprises, The Industry and The Service Sectors in Turkey, Cypusandmalta, 23. December, In Ternetsit.

26. Statistics Center of Iran (2013). Statistical Journal of Qom Province (In Persian).

27. Thomas, R.W. and Hug get, R.J. (1980). Modeling in Geography, a mathematical approach, Harper and Row, Publisher, London.

28. UNWTO (2007). Tourism Highlights 2007 Edition, Available in: "www.unwto.com".

29. Zahedi, Sh.S. (2006). Fundamentals of Tourism and Sustainable Ecotourism (with emphasis on the environment), Allameh Tabatabai University Press (In Persian).