عنوان مقاله [English]
In today's world, tourism is one of the most important tools for governments to introduce their culture to other nations using cultural, economic, social and security. One of the fundamental principles in tourism development, identification and efficient use of resources and capacities of tourism in the host society. Given that most of Iran's territory is desert, recognizing and principled way to utilize the full potential of deserts and desert, a crucial requirement of tourism development and economic and social development of the region and even the whole country. So far, there has not been fully recognize the attraction of desert areas and be more precise studies on the characteristics of these attractions as well as appropriate infrastructure for the development of the industry carried out in desert areas. Qom province as a province of desert country, has potential resources for tourism development in desert areas and wastelands. Accordingly, this paper is to identify, spatial distribution of desert and wilderness tourist attractions the province and prioritize the capabilities to develop this type of tourism is addressed.
The research method is descriptive - analytical and objective is applied. A library and field data collection (using questionnaires and site visits and direct observation) been carried out. Questionnaires using the Delphi method has been completed by experts including employees Administration of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Qom, managers and senior staff of travel agencies and tourism city of Qom, Qom Province leaders, professors and students of tourism in Qom Province. To study the spatial distribution of tourist attractions Qom province of Getis-Ord model is used and to prioritize capacity in developing desert tourism in tourism and achieve productive economy, the ELECTRE model is used.
Results and discussion
According to the findings of the questionnaires and surveys and field visits, Qom Province capabilities to develop tourism in desert areas is classified in 8: 1) settlements or health care; 2) adventure tourism; 3) scientific tourism; 4) sport tourism and held a variety of sports competitions; 5) Tourists visit the attractions of this region in terms of tours; 6) infrastructure and set suitable for artistic and cultural events; 7) be ecotourism and 8) the possibility of attracting public and private investments in relation to the types of tourism. In examining the spatial distribution of tourist attractions Qom province Getis-Ord model results indicated that the Zscore higher than 2.58 and equal to 17.76 is obtained the confidence level (P-value) 0.99 Distribution tourist attractions are clustered in Qom. The focus (clusters) are concentrated in three regions of Qom province that includes: 1) highway near Qom - Tehran (radius of 10 km); 2) highway near Qom - Kashan (radius of 10 km) and 3) the area around the city of Qom (radius of 20 km).
Finally prioritization capabilities desert and wilderness tourism in the province based on 86 expert show The relative capabilities in tourism development in desert and wilderness of Qom, the first priority was Three capabilities that include: "Scientific tourism" with a score of ( 5 ), "the possibility of attracting public and private investments in connection with a variety of tourism" with a score of ( 3 ), and "ecotourism" with a score of ( 1 ). The second priority, two capability the same score ( -3 ) are to include "adventure tourism" and "sport tourism and held a variety of sports competitions". The third priority tourism development capabilities in desert and wilderness of Qom three capability with an included "infrastructure and set suitable for artistic and cultural events" and "Tourists visit the attractions of this region in terms of tours" with a score of ( -5 ) and finally "settlements or health care" with a score of ( -7 ) are the last priority.
Tourism with minimal pollution can lead to the development of sustainable and the significant achievements and financial security they provide. For this reason, the development of tourism as one of the components and measures are developed at a global level. Iran general and Qom specifically despite its attractions and capabilities of this subject is not innocent And will be able to optimize the use of existing capabilities and the expansion of facilities and the removal of barriers, in order to achieve an effective strides forward. Approach to religious authorities in Qom and tourism industry operators, as well as indirect support and advocacy officials atmosphere, all made to be used all the functionality Tourism Or possibly in their assessment of many activities that do not fit in the framework ignored. The result of this approach to development of tourism, one hundred percent control density tourism activities in the city of Qom Province with a religious approach and neglect of our abilities province. Continuation of this trend is not consistent with the principles and criteria for sustainable development The findings showed Qom province due to additional features and in particular natural and historical endowments, could be positive background of many legitimate activities and leisure - Tourism in the desert and wilderness areas in order to respond to the needs of leisure and other provinces and even other countries in the region provide a wide range And lead to more consistency tourists. Results showed there a lot of potential resources in desert areas Qom Province that they can use to organize and latent demand for the use of their native said, and also provide a potential target markets for tourism in the province to create diversity and distribution of tourists in the province just focused on several specific points that are currently not and the level of facilities. This will first and foremost lead to sustainable development and led some deserted areas of the capital and credit resources will increase.