عنوان مقاله [English]
The rural settlements throughout the world are faced with many problems such as unemployment, migration, poverty and environmental degradation. Because of existing deficiencies in services and facilities, this situation decreased the general inhabitability of rural settlements especially in developing countries. Therefore, understanding the needs of rural people and making these spaces livable could improve the quality of life in rural area to provide the appropriate condition for achieving sustainable development goals. Getting to this purpose involves promotion of the livability level and inhabitability of rural environments as a main place of rural living and employment. Because nowadays, in most cases rural environments haven’t enough standards of living due to many reasons such as faults in private living facilities. These could, consequently, increase spatial un-sustainability for inhabitants. This condition observed in rural areas is farther from urban environments. In order to make a planning for the rural areas, we need livable and inhabitable spaces as a living and employing place. It is needed to identify the effective indicators and also make a ranking of the rural points based on these indicators for recognizing the spatial livability differences among them.
The purpose of this paper is to study the concept of rural livability in academic literature and codify the rural livability indicators by sustainability dimensions using multiple criteria attention. We are to make a ranking of the rural points using multi-criteria decision making techniques in Nezam abad Dehestan, Azadshahr Township, Iran. This research attempts to address rural point livability based on the determined criteria by VICORE technique.
This is an applied study by analysis – explanatory methodology. The main goal is to make a ranking of the rural points based on livability criteria. For gathering the needed information, we have used documentary and field study observations through questionnaire. For the rural points, finally, 4 dimensions and 16 criteria have been selected as a livability indicator mentioned in theatrical literature. Validity and reliability of the indicators have been tested for the 34 questionnaires through Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.62 to 0.81. The statistical community of this study contains 17 villages selected from 22 recorded rural points in 2011. The sample size determined by Cochran formula is 94 households among 3874 households. To analyze the data, we have used statistical tests compare mean T-test, MCDM techniques, and VICORE.
Results and discussion
The results of T-Test statistical examination of respondent attitude show that 8 criteria of livability indicators were meaningful in the study area. This has indicated that there are meaningful differences among the means of livability indicators in rural points of the study area. Thus, the obtained significant differences of the results in the alpha level of 0.05 have documented that from 16 indicators to measure viability; only 8 criteria have been meaningful at alpha less than 0.05 and accepted as a livable area. The ranking of the rural points based on MCDM techniques confirmed that Ghurchay and Hajinabi is in lowest level of livability.
The results of data analysis have also been confirmed by real observations through field study. Therefore, it is possible that these criteria can be introduced as a proved pattern for other rural areas to measure the level of livability. These criteria could be helpful for rural development planners to revise policies and plans for improving the rural spaces. The planners and managers must focus on promotion of the livability criteria in rural points to improve the rural spaces for inhabitants. Therefore, the managers should allocate the development credits and loans to focus on improvement of the rural livability especially in less livable villages.
18. Azkiya, M., 2005, Introduction to Sociology of Rural Development, Information Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)
19. Papoli Yazdi, M. H., and Ebrahimi, M. A., 2002, Rural Development Theories, Samt Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)
20. Hoseini Abari, S. H., 2004, Entrance to the Rural Geography of Iran, Esfahan University Publications, Esfahan. (In Persian)
21. Khorasani, M. A. et al., 2013, Surveying and Assessment of Livability in Peri Urban Villages (Case Study: Varamin Township), Rural Research, Vol. 3, No.4(12), PP. 79-104. (In Persian)
22. Rostamali Zade, V., and Selyani, M., 2011, Desirable Rural Life with an Emphasis on Rural Community Wellbeing, Journal of Community Development (Rural and Urban Communities), Vol. 3, No. 2, PP.165-186. (In Persian)
23. Razvani, M. R., Mansooriyan, H., and Ahmadi, F., 2011, Promoting Villages to City and Its Role on Improvement of Quality of Life of Local Resident (Case Study: Firozabad and Sahen Cities in Lorestan and Kordestan Provinces), Rural Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, PP. 33-65. (In Persian)
24. Shahbazi, E., 1992, Rural development and promotion, Tehran University Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)
25. Haji Nejad, A., Fatahi, A., and Paydar, A., 2015, The Application of Decision Making Models and Techniques in Geography with an Emphasis on Rural, Urban and Tourism Planning. SID Publications, Tehran (1st Ed.). (In Persian)
26. Esaloo, A. A., Bayat, M., and Bahrami, A., 2013, The Notion of Livability: A New Approach in Improvement of Quality of Life in Rural Communities- Case Study: Qom County, Kahak District, Journal of Housing and Rural Environment, Vol. 33, No. 146, PP. 107-120. (In Persian)
27. Ghafari, GH., and Omidi, R., 2009, Quality of Life Index of Social Development, Tehran, Shiraze. (In Persian)
28. Fatahi, A. A., 2010, Assessment Quality of Life (QLA) in Rural Areas (Case Study: Northern Khâvé Dehestan / county), MA Geography and Rural Planning Thesis, Tehran, Tarbiat Modares University. (In Persian)
29. Li, Deivid, A., M, Choodri, D. P, 1991, The Nature and Issues of Rural, Development Translation: Rural Research Center, Journal of Village and Development, No. 3, Ministry of Jihad-E-Sazandegi Ministry, Tehran. (In Persian)
30. Mohammadi Yegane, B., Cheraghi, M., and Ahmadi, K., 2014, Review the Effects of Micro-Credit on Economic Empowerment of the Rural Poor Case study: Ghani Begloo Village, Zanjan City, Geography and development Iranian journal, Vol. 12, No. 35, PP. 233-247. (In Persian)
31. Misra, R. P., 1986, Rural Development and Its Problems, Translation: Fayaz, A.A., Journal of Village and Development, No. 1, Ministry of Jihad-E-Sazandegi Ministry, Tehran. (In Persian)
32. Noroozi Avargani, A., 2011, A Brief Overview of Rural Development Approaches, Sepehr Journal, Vol. 20, No. 77, PP. 35-44. (In Persian)
33. Sadeghloo, T., and Sojasi Qhidari, H. A., 2014, Survey Relationship Between Rural Settlement Livability and Rural Resilience in Front of Natural Disaster in Rural Areas of Mravehtapeh and Palizan County, Journal of Emergency Management, Vol. 3, No. 2, PP. 37-44. (In Persian)
34. Khorasani, A., and Razvani, M. R., 2013, Identification and Analysis on The Rural-Urban Difference iIn Livability the City of Varamin, Quartely Journal of Space Economy and Rural Development, Vol. 2, No. 4, PP. 55-74. (In Persian)
35. Be’renger, V., and Verdier Chouchane, A., 2006, Multidimensional Measures of Well-Being: Standard of Living and Quality of Lifeacross Countries, World Development, No. 35, PP. 1259-1276.
36. Blassingame, L., 1988, Sustainable Cities: Oxymoron, Utopia, or Inevitability? Social Science Journal, Vol. 35, No. 1, PP. 1-13.
37. Byock, I. R., Merriman, M. P., 1988, Measuring Quality of Life for Patients with Terminal Illness: The Missoula-Vitas Quality of Life Index, Palliative Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 4, PP. 231-244.
38. Carlino, G. A., and Mills E. S., 1987, The Determinants of County Growth, Journal of Regional Science 27, PP. 39-54.
39. Carlsson, S. O. and Frederiksen, C. G., 2002, Quality of Life and Standard of Living in a Randomly Selected Group of Psychiatrically Disabled People in Sweden 2 Years After a Psychiatry Reform, European Psychiatry, Vol. 17, No. 4, PP. 87-179.
40. Cranwell, M. R. et al., 2005, A Model Food Entrepreneur Assistance and Education Program: The Northeast Center for Food Entrepreneurship, Journal of Food Science Education, Vol. 4. No. 21, PP. 56-65
41. D’Agostini, L. R., Fantini, A.C., 2008, Quality of Life and Quality of Living Conditions in Ruralareas: Distinctively Perceived and Quantitatively Distinguished, Social Indicator Research, Vol. 89, No. 4, PP. 487-499.
42. Dajian, Z., and Rogers P. P., 2010, World Expo and Urban Life Quality in Shanghai in Terms of Sustainable Development Chinese, Journal of Population, Resources and Environment, Vol. 4, No. 1, PP. 15-22.
43. Kazana, V., and Kazaklis, A., 2009, Exploring Quality of Life Concerns in the Context of Sustainable Rural Development at the Local Level: A Greek Case Study, Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 9, No. 3, PP. 209-219.
44. May, A., 1996, Information Technology in Urban Planning, Routledge, London.
45. Meadows, D., 1988, Indicators and Information Systems for Sustainable Development; A Report to the Balaton Group, Indicators and Information Systems for Sustainable Development, Published by the Sustainability Institut.
46. Norris, T., and Pittman, M., 2000, The Health Community’s Movement and the Coalition for Healthier Cities and Communities, Public Health Reports, Vol. 115, No. 2-3, PP. 118-124.
47. Opricovic S., and Tzeng, G. H., 2004, Compromise Solution by MCDM Methods: A Comparative Analysis of VIKOR and TOPSIS, European Journal of Operational Research 156. PP. 445-455.
48. ----------, 2007, Extended VIKOR Method in Comparison with Outranking Methods, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 178, No. 2, PP. 514- 529.
49. Ramage, J. K., and Davies, A. H., 2003, Measurement of Quality of Life in Carcinoid/ Neuroendocrine Tumors Neuroendocrine Tumours, Endocrine-Related Cancer 10.
50. Vanzerr M., and Seskin, S., 2011, Recommendations Memo Livability and Quality of Life Indicators, http://.Oregon.Gov/ODOT/Td/Tp/Docs/Lcp/Livability.Pdf
51. Vergunst, P., 2003, Liveability and Ecological Land Use the Challenge of Localization, Ph.D. Thesis in Department of Rural Development Studies, Swedish University of Agriculture
52. Wang, X., 2010, The Research on the Evaluation Index System of Livable Rural Areas in China by the Case of Rural Areas in Henan Province, Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, Vol. 1, No. 1, PP. 456-461.