تحلیل فضایی شاخص های توسعۀ پایدار به منظورتحقق پذیری شهرهای خلاق (مطالعۀ موردی: شهرهای استان یزد)

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیا و برنامه‏ ریزی شهری، دانشگاه اصفهان

2 استاد جغرافیا و برنامه ‏ریزی شهری، دانشگاه اصفهان

3 دانشیار جغرافیا و برنامه ‏ریزی شهری، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

هدف از این تحقیق تحلیل فضایی شاخص‏های توسعة پایدار در تطبیق با شاخص‏های شهر خلاق به‏منظور تحقق شهر خلاق است. نوع تحقیق کاربردی و روش آن توصیفی‏- تحلیلی است. جامعة آماری 21 نقطة شهری استان یزد است. در سال‏های اخیر رشد سریع شهرنشینی، افزایش مهاجرت‏ها، توسعة صنعتی شهرها، و رشد حاشیه‏نشینی نه‏تنها شاخص‏های توسعة پایدار، بلکه شاخص‏های شهر خلاق را در شهرهای استان تحت تأثیر قرار داده است. یافته‏های تحقیق نشان می‏دهد عدم به‏کارگیری مؤلفه‏های نوآوری‏های شهری به عدم خلاقیت و پایین‏آمدن کیفیت زندگی در فضاهای عمومی‏شهرهای استان منجر شده است. از نمونه‏های این عدم خلاقیت، تبدیل خیابان قیام (شریان اقتصادی) در قلب مرکزی بافت تاریخی شهر یزد به یک مسیر پیاده‏محور برخلاف ضوابط شهرسازی، استقرار تابلوهای شهری برخلاف ضوابط و قوانین سیما و منظر شهری، و تبدیل فضاهای عمومی‏شهروندان با کاربری فضای سبز به کاربری تجاری بدون رعایت مصوبات شهرسازی است. نتایج حاصله از تحلیل رگرسیونی نشان می‏دهد بخش نوآوری می‏تواند بیشترین تأثیر را در پیش‏گویی و تحقق‏پذیری شهر خلاق در شهرهای استان داشته باشد. در این رابطه استفاده از دانش‏های نوین در تولیدات صنعتی با استقرار صنایع با تکنولوژی بالا در شهرهای استان، به‏کارگیری ایده‏های جدید در کنترل ساخت‏وسازها، راه‏اندازی خانة گفتمان مدیریت یک‏پارچة شهری، و تقویت رابطة مدیریت شهری و شهروندان راهبردهای اصلاح شاخص‏های توسعة پایدار در راستای تحقق‏پذیری شهر خلاق در شهرهای استان است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial Analysis of Sustainable Development Indicators In order to Realization of Creative Cities (Case Study: Cities OF Yazd Province )

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Bagheri 1
  • asghar zarabi 2
  • mirnajaf mousavi 3
1 UT
2 عضو هیات علمی
3 عضو هیات علمی
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract:
Introduction
Indicators of sustainability are different from the traditional indicators of economic, social and environmental performance. Traditional indicators – such as stockholder profits, asthma rates and water quality – measure changes in one part of a community as if they were entirely independent of the other parts. Working with sustainability indicators therefore provides the potential of translating the ideals and values of sustainable development into measures for assessing the progress that cities are making. Such assessment in turn provides the basis upon which to seek new directions for policies and programmes that are important to shifting cities towards more sustainable paths to development and growth. In this regard, Creative city is a place with strong potentials for arts, culture, creativity and innovation which is characterized by four scenarios of creative human capital, quality of life, innovation and social capital aimed at the application of sustainable development indicators. Also, concepts such inventions and creativity in all scientific fields, creative industries, elements of sustainable economy and environment are the criteria underlying complete social welfare and improved quality of life as well as the livability of the city. As a result, given that city and its quality of life are directly influenced by the attitude towards urban issues, urban creativity as a strategic approach affects the above criteria. Actually, modern urban planning shows an avalanche of varying initiatives focused on creative urban development, in particular by centring on culture and arts as multifaceted cornerstones for innovative development of the city. For this purpose, the creative class has a major impact on the study of factors that can motivate competition in urban areas. In the conceptual model of this research, the application of creative class as human and social capital will encourage innovation in urban environments, which would result in improved quality of life of residents. Now, if this component of creative city is applied to all indicators of sustainability, the foundation for the realization of a creative city will be laid. In this regard, competition and collusion of realizable and conflicting elements as well as conformity are the main barriers to sustainable urban development and creative city. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between sustainable development indicators and criteria of creative cities in Yazd Province with an eye toward the implementation of sustainable creative city.
Methodology
This is a descriptive-analytical study and statistical population consists of 21 cities of Yazd Province, The research draw on 50 indicators of sustainable development and 30 indicators of creative. For data analysis, Decision Tree and Neural Network Model were used. Furthermore, to test the relationship between the variables, inferential statistics tests such as correlation coefficient, multiple regression and path analysis were employed.
Results and discussion
In many programs, especially in urban and regional planning, the number of population and spatial-temporal distribution is of particular importance. According to the official statistics of Iran, Yazd province had a population of 401,868 people in 1976 which increased to 1,074,428 people in 2011. In recent decades, in addition to population growth there has been an increase in the numbers of cities as well. This has led to unbalanced distribution of population in this Province, giving rise to urban imbalances and inequalities. Accordingly, a study of indicators of sustainable development in Yazd province shows Yazd and Mybod fall in the group pf sustainable cities. Also, the results of path analysis about the indicators of a creative city show that innovation variable (0.672) 0 and education (0.537) have the largest effects in the cities of Yazd province in terms of sustainable development and creative city respectively. Also multiple correlation coefficients (R) confirm the relationship between indicators of creative city and sustainable urban development (as a combined index) in cities of Yazd province with a rate of 0.569. Decision Tree findings are indicative of high impact indicators Human Capital and Innovation The realization of creative cities in the cities of Yazd. In smaller cities of the province, investment in social capital can be a precursor to attract the creative class and the formation of innovation why always these cities accounted for a large share of public participation in all aspects of urban development. Finally, given its substantial human capital, numerous experts high growth rate and multiple technology centers, the city of Yazd has great potentials in using renewable energy (solar, wind) and advancing toward the realization of a creative city.
Conclusion
Finally, suggestions that can help the realization of creative cities in Yazd province include Joint decision urban management organizations in the set up a committee urban landscape for visual harmony of urban landscapes in cities of Yazd Strengthen relationship with urban management and citizens; improve the Status of technology infrastructure and urban services, Design elements and symbols of urban Based on history, culture, art, social and economic characteristics of cities And the use of local materials In combination with the breathtaking scenery of music and color Centers, axes and urban public spaces In order to increase participation of citizens in urban areas and the expansion of social interaction, Prediction construction public and private parking in urban centers humanist With a focus on pedestrian and bicycle movement, Innovative use of color and materials In order to minimize energy consumption, The use of highly recyclable materials, Strengthening and creating spaces pause, coordination color panel buildings with facade paints, the use of cool colors and calming the land use religious, flooring distinct strengthening of walking, improving the readability of urban spaces, the use of warm color in land use commercial in order to increase Capability Forward in space, Create the relationship between industrial clusters Available at cities with centers of higher education and universities to support creative ideas, The creation of urban spaces with the capacity to attract and retain creative class of urban and Use of the new sciences in industrial production with the establishment of high-tech industries.

Keyword: Sustainable development, creative city, implementations, Space analysis, Cities of Yazd province

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sustainable Development
  • creative city
  • implementations
  • Space analysis
  • Cities of Yazd province
پوراصغر سنگاچین، فرزام؛ صالحی، اسماعیل و مثنوی، محمدرضا، 1389، مقایسة تطبیقی- تحلیلی روش‏های سنجش توسعة پایدار، پژوهش‏هایمحیطزیست، س ۱، ش ۱.
حسین‏زاده‏ دلیر، کریم، 1387، برنامه‏ریزی ناحیه‏ای، تهران: سمت.
ذاکریان، ملیحه؛ موسوی، میرنجف و باقری کشکولی، علی، 1389، تحلیلی بر پراکنش جمعیت و توزیع خدمات در محلات شهر میبد از منظر توسعة پایدار، فصل‏نامة پژوهش و برنامهریزی شهری، ش 4.
رحیمی، محمد؛ مردعلی، محسن؛ داها، الهام و فلاح‏زاده، عبدالرسول، 1392، شهرهای خلاق (مبانی و شاخص‏ها)، مرکز مطالعات و برنامه‏ریزی شهر تهران، مجلة دانش شهر، ش 196.
زیاری، کرامت‏الله، 1380، توسعة پایدار و مسئولیت برنامه‏ریزان در قرن بیست‏ویکم، مجلة ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دورة 160، ش 1.
سپهوند رضا و عارف‏نژاد، محسن، 1392، اولویت‏بندی شاخص‏های توسعة پایدار شهری با رویکرد تجزیه و تحلیل سلسله‏مراتبی گروهی (مطالعة موردی در شهر اصفهان)، فصل‏نامة مطالعات برنامهریزی شهری، س ۱، ش ۱.
ضرابی، اصغر؛ موسوی، میرنجف و باقری کشکولی، علی، 1393، بررسی میزان تحقق‏پذیری شهر خلاق (مقایسة تطبیقی بین شاخص‏های توسعة پایدار شهری و معیارهای ایجاد شهر خلاق) (مطالعة موردی: شهرهای استان یزد)، فصل‏نامة جغرافیا و توسعة فضای شهری، س ۱، ش ۱.
قرخلو، مهدی و حسینی، سیدهادی، 1386، شاخص‏های توسعة پایدار شهری، مجلة جغرافیا و توسعة ناحیهای، ش 8.
کریمی، فرزاد و احمدوند، مصطفی، 1393، وضعیت‏سنجی و اولویت‏بندی شاخص‏های توسعة پایدار در مناطق روستایی مطالعة موردی: بخش مرکزی شهرستان بویراحمد، پژوهش‏های روستایی، دورة ۵، ش ۳.
10. Adams, W.M., 2006, The Future of Sustainable: Re-thinking Environment and Development in the Twenty-first Century. Report of the IUCN Thinkers Meeting: 29–31 January.
11. Alasia, A.; Bollman, R.; Parkins, J. and Reimer, B., 2008, An index of community vulnerability: Conceptual framework and application to population and employment changes. Research Paper 88.
12. Alberti, M.; Marzluff, J.; Shulenberger, E.; Bradley, G.; Ryan, C. and Zumbrunnen, C., 2003, Integrating Humans into Ecology: Opportunities and Challenges for Studying Urban Ecosystems. Bioscience,  Vol. 53,  No. 12, PP. 1169–1179.
13. Audia, P.G. and Rider, C.I., 2010, Close, but not the same: locally headquartered organizations and agglomeration economies in a declining industry. Research Policy, doi:10.1016/j.respol.2010.01.007
14. Benton-Short, L. and Short, J.R., 2008, Cities and Nature. London: Routledge.
15. Berridge, J., 2006, The Creative City, Plan, spring 2006, P. 21.
16. Cagmani, R., 2007, City Network as Tools for Competitiveness and Sustainability, in Cities in Globalization: Practices, Policies and Theories, edited by P.J. Taylor et al. London: Routledge, PP. 105–129.
17. Clark, TN., 2004, Urban amenities: lakes, opera and juice bars, do they drive development? In The City as an Entertainment Machine, TN Clark (ed.), PP. 103–140. Elsevier, Oxford.
18. Culver, G., 2017, Mobility and the making of the neoliberal “creative city”: The streetcar as a creative city project? Journal of Transport Geography, Vol. 58, PP. 22–30.
19. Cutter, S.L. and Finch, C., 2008, Temporal and Spatial Changes in Social Vulnerability to Natural Hazards. PNAS, Vol. 105, No. 7, PP. 2301–2306.
20. Deffner, A. and Vlachopoulou, Ch., 2010, Creative city: A new challenge of strategic urban planning?, Department of Planning and Regional Development, School of Engineering, University of Thessaly, Volos 383 34, Greece
21. Darchen, Sébastien, and Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay. 2010, “Attracting and retaining the workforce in science and technology: The case of Montreal.” In Knowledge-based development of cities and societies: An integrated multi- level approach, ed. Kostas Metaxiotis, Francisco Javier Carrillo, and Tan  Yigitcanlar, 42–58. Hershey, PA: IGI Global
22. Florida, R., 2005, Cities and the Creative Class. New York, London: Rutledge.
23. Gherekhlo, M. and Hosseni, S. H., 2007, Sustainable Development Indicators, Journal of Geography and Regional Development, No. 8.
24. Girard, L.F., Baycan, T. and Nijkamp, P., 2011, Sustainable City and Creativity Promoting Creative Urban Initiatives, Published by Ashgate Publishing Limited, Wey Court East, Union Road
25. Glaeser, E.L. and Gottlieb, J.D., 2009, The Wealth of Cities: Agglomeration Economies and Spatial Equilibrium. Journal of Economic Literature, PP. 983–1028.
26. Hamburg, J.R.; Creighton, R.L. and Scott, R.S., 1968, Evaluation of Land Use Patterns: Urban Development Models, Conference proceedings, Washington, DC: Highway Research Board.
27. Han, Feng. 2010. “Cultural Landscape – Filling the Gaps Between Nature and Culturel.” Chinese Landscape Architecture, No. 9, PP.7–11.
28. Hosseinzadeh Delir, K., 2008, Regional Planning, Tehran: Samt Publishing.
29. Karimi, F. and Ahmadvand, M., 2014, Status and Prioritization of Sustainable Development Indicators in Rural Areas Case Study: Central District of Boyerahmad city, Rural Studies, Vol. 5, No. 3.
30. Kidokoro, T.; Harata, N.; Subanu, L.P.; Jessen, J.; Motte, A. and Seltzer, E.P., 2008, Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance, Hicom, Japan: Springer.
31. Leonie , S., 2005, A new spin on the creative city: Artist/planner collaborations.Planning Theory and Practice, Vol. 6, No. 1, PP. 101-103.
32. Maning, T. and Darnton, J., 2006, Social diversity and economic development in the metropolis. Journal of Planning Literature, Vol. 21, No. 2, PP. 153-168.
33. Newman, P. and Jannings, I., 2008, Cities as Sustainable Ecosystems: Principles and Practices. Washington, Covelo, London: Island Press.
34. Norris, F.; Stevens, S.; Pfefferbaum, B.; Wyche, K. and Rose, L., 2008, Community Resilience as a Metaphor, Theory, Set of Capacities and Strategies for Disaster Readiness. American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol.  41, No. 1–2, PP.127–50.
35. Ooi, G.L., 2005, Sustainability and Cities: Concept and Assessment, Singapore: IPS and World Scientific Publishing Co.
36. Pour Asghar Sangachin, F.; Salehi, I. and Masnavi, M.R., 2010, Comparison Comparative-Analytical of Sustainable Development Measurement Methods, Environmental Research, Vol. 1, No. 1.
37. Rahimi, M.; Mardali, M.; Daha, E. and Fallahzadeh, A. R., 2013, Creative Cities (Foundations and Indicators), Center for Study and Planning of Tehran City, City knowledge journal, No. 196.
38. Ratiu, D. E., 2013, Creative cities and/or sustainable cities: Discourses and practices, City, Culture and Society, Vol. 4, No. 3.
39. Scott, A.J., 2006, The Cultural Economy of Cities, Sage, Creative cities: conceptual issues and policy questions, Journal of urban affairs, No. 28, PP. 1-17.
40. Sepahvand, R. and  Arefnejad, M., 2013, Prioritization of Indicators of Sustainable Urban Development with Approach of Group hierarchy Analysis (Case Study in Isfahan), Urban Planning Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 1.
41. Siebel, W., 2008, Talent, Tolerant, Technologies. Kritische Anmerkungen zu dried neon Zauberworten deer Stadpolitik. RegionPol, Zeitschrift fur Regional wirtschaft, Vol. 1, No. 1, PP. 31–39.
42. Villagrán, J.C., 2006, Vulnerability: A Conceptual and Methodological Review, Publication Series of UNU-EHS 4. Bonn.
43. Wisner, B.; Blaikie, P.; Cannon, T. and Davis, I., 2003, At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability and Disasters. UK: Routledge.
44. Zakirian, M.; Mousavi, M. N. and Bagheri Kaskouli, A., 2010, An Analysis of Population Distribution and Distribution of Services in Meybod city neighborhoods in terms of Sustainable Development, Journal of Urban Planning and Research, No. 4.
45. Zarrabi, A.; Mousavi, M. N. and Bagheri Kaskouli, A., 2014, Study rate of realization of the creative city (Comparative Comparison Between Indicators of Sustainable Urban Development and Criteria of Creative City Creation) (Case Study: Cities of Yazd Province), Geography and Urban Space Development, Vol. 1, No. 1.
46. Zayyari, K. A., 2001, Sustainable Development and Planning Responsibility in the 21st Century, Journal of Literature and Humanities, Vol. 160, No. 1.