نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 دکتری جغرافیا و برنامهریزی روستایی دانشگاه تربیتمدرس
2 استاد جغرافیا و برنامهریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تربیتمدرس
عنوان مقاله [English]
Although there is no reliable data on coastal tourism as a separate section of tourism industry, it is generally considered as one of the fastest growing forms of tourism in recent decades. Here again, UNWTO statistics show that 12 of the 15 world’s top destination countries in 2000 were those with coastlines (UNEP, 2009: 2). Sun, beautiful beaches, and warm ocean waters have become standard vacation requirements for many tourists. Forty-nine percent of those visiting the Caribbean do so for the beaches, while 28 percent are primarily interested in sightseeing, and 17 percent in water sports. Moreover, roughly 25% of the jobs in the Caribbean are directly or indirectly tourism related (Bridges, 2002: 93- 94).
Capacity is defined as the organizational and technical abilities, relationships and values that enable countries, organizations, groups, and individuals at any level of society to carry out functions and achieve their development objectives over time. Capacity refers not only to skills and knowledge but also to relationships, values and attitudes, and many others (Morgan, 1998). Capacity at the organization level will determine how individual capabilities are utilized and strengthened. It refers to anything that will influence an organization's performance (JICA, 2004). Key to the success of any of the processes discussed above is the persons with the necessary capacities to effective participation. According to Innes and Booher (2003) an individual with more capacity to participate in collaborative processes is one with a particular set of skills and a better understanding of problems and opportunities and of others’ perspectives. The integrated and coordinated process needed for achievement of the sustainable development will draw on a wide range of skills, some of which might be new to those involved (Innes & Booher, 2003). The aim of this study is to evaluate the management capacity of the organizations responsible for handling coastal tourism destinations.
The research has a descriptive-analytic method. In this research, organizations management capacity were evaluated by the questionnaire in 6 dimensions of leadership, human resource management, financial resource management, crisis management, ecological management, economic management and social management. One-sample t test was used for analysis. The sample size was 22 people, including managers and experts of the responsible organizations in coastal tourism destinations.
Results and discussion
Organization management capacity was evaluated in 6 dimensions. Results of the dimensions are the following:
Leadership: Creation of harmony between different units for coastal projects (1.95), prioritization of coastal tourism problems (1.72), the rule of law on the implementation of the Coastal Plan (1.27), the registry and archive data for coastal plan (1.27), doing things in the organization for coastal projects (1.09). The distribution of powers are balanced through the leadership of the organization for coastal projects (1), as the basis for control, monitoring and evaluation through the rules and regulations related to coastal tourism (0.9), saving time to decision making about seaside plot (0.81), the existence of regulations, encouraging employees in the organization (0.72), the management system of monitoring and evaluation, based on the structure and functioning of the villages in the project area (0.36), the use of external specialists for coastal tourism (0.18 ) and thinking room for coastal tourism with the participation of specialists (0.04).
Ecological management: creation of green spaces in the beach (0.63) proportional to the number of tourists and the area of the site and the potential of the site to reduce congestion and pollution (0.54).
Economic management: creation of a legal framework to facilitate investment community on the beach (0.18), creation of a legal framework for community investment tax breaks on the beach (0.36), creation of job opportunities for the local community on the beach (0.81), creation of sale opportunities for local production at the beach (1.45) and reduction of the cost of job creation by the local community on the beach (0.18).
Social management: attention to social illnesses (crime, theft, drug addiction, etc.) in the village (0.18), upholding the faith of rural people in coastal plan (0.13), maintaining villagers in traditional coastal design (0.18), keeping rural family integrity in coastal plan (0.13), and maintaining public safety in the seaside villages (0.22).
Human resource management: financial experts for encouragement (1), encourage of experts to promotion (0.13), proper screening of knowledge (0.18), a decent choice based on experience (0.18), deserve choice based on the knowledge and experience (0.27) and build skills in coastal staff (0.36).
Coastal areas have long been of interest to tourists. The areas have the potential capabilities (beautiful combination of sea and beach, serenity of environment, etc.) for tourism development and the ability to attract tourists from near and far. Management organizations play important role in the effective and efficient use resources in planning, organizing, and mobilizing resources, guidance and control in order to achieve the organization's objectives in the development of coastal tourism. In the study area, these organizations are resulted from poor management of coastal development purposes. In order to improve management capacity in coastal development purposes, we can consider the following actions:
Promotion of the necessary management capacity is an intellectual leadership. Academic experts can bring together in conjunction with the development of tourism to synergy.Human resources management as another factor plays an important role in development of coastal tourism. In the majority of enterprises, human resource management is not properly and thereby allocating the tasks to tourism experts. It has the ability to do these tasks necessary for admission. It is necessary in the assignment of tasks, based on criteria for switching a decent education, knowledge and experience to motivate the financial incentives in the form of experts and occupational promotion, especially as conditions of competition among the experts.
18. AliPoor, A., and Baindor Nasrollah Beglo, M., 2015, Sustainable Tourism Management (Case Study: Bojnourd City), Journal of Social-Cultural Strategy, Vol. 4, No. 14, PP. 115- 135. (In Persian)
19. Beikmohammadi, H., 2004, The Southern Costals of the Caspian Sea, Sepehr Magazine, Vol. 12, No. 46. PP. 51-54 (In Persian)
20. Bridges, T., (ed) 2002, Travel Industry World Yearbook- The Big Picture 2001, (Vol. 44), Travel Industry Publishing Inc, Spencertown, NY.
21. Burke, L. et al., 2001, Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems: Coastal Ecosystems, Washington, DC, USA: World Resources Institute.
22. Chemers, M., 1997, Leadership, Change and Organizational Effectiveness.
23. Civil Society Human and Institutional Development Programme (CHIP), 2007, Capacity-building Framework for Partners and Stakeholders.
24. Coastal Tourism Working Group: NOV, 2001, Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership.
25. Godschalk, D. R., 1992, Implementing Coastal Zone Management: 1972–1990, Coastal Management, No. 20 (2). PP. 93–116.
26. Gunn, C., 1994, Tourism Planning: Basic, Concepts, No. 2 nd edn, London/ Washington: Taylor and Francis.
27. Hajarian, M., and Mirab Astaneh, P., 2010, Financial Strategies, Alameh Tabatabayi University, Tehran. (In Persian)
28. Hall, M. K., and Jenkins, J., 2004, Tourism Policy Making, Translated by Seyed Mohamad Erabi and Davood Izadi, Cultural Researchs Published, Tehran. (In Persian)
29. Heydari CHiane, R., 2005, Evaluation of Tourism Industry Planning in Iran, Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Tabriz University. (In Persian)
30. Heydari CHiane, R., 2014, The Principles of Tourism Industry Planning, Samt Published, Tehran. (In Persian)
31. Innes, J., and Booher, D., 2003, The Impact of Collaborative Planning on Governance Capacity, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California, Berkeley, Working Paper 2003-03, Paper prepared for presentation at the Annual Conference of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning, Baltimore, November.
32. Ioannides, D., and Debbage, K. G., 1998, The Economy Geography of the Tourism Industry, Routledge, London.
33. JICA, 2004, Task Force on Aid Approaches, Capacity Development Handbook for JICA Staff, JICA.
34. Khastar, H. et al., 2009, Role of Human Resource Planning in Implementation of Organization Strategy, Police Human Development Bimonthly, Vol. 6 No. 23, PP. 79- 106. (In Persian)
35. Khorasanizadeh, F., and Omidi, S., 2011, Solutions for Management and Development of Tourism Infrastructures in Iran, First Conference on Tourism Management and Development, Challenges and Solutions, Center for Technology Studies,Tehran. (In Persian)
36. Lusthaus C., Anderson G., and Murphy, E., 1995, Institutional Assessment- a Framework for Strengthening Organizational Capacity for IDRC's Research Partners, Ottawa: IDRC, 1995.
37. MacEwen, A., and MacEwen, R., 1982, National Parks: Conservation or Cosmetics? Sydney: George Allen and Unwin.
38. Mcintosh, W. R., and Charles R. G., 1995, Tourism Principles, Practices, Philosophies, United States of American, John Wiley and Sons, in.
39. Morgan, P., 1998, Capacity and Capacity Development Some Strategies, Note prepared for CID A / Policy Branch, October.
40. Nori, N., 2006, Government’s Policies in Tourism Development and Providing of Sustainable Pattern in Tourism Development, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Tehran. (In Persian)
41. Page, S. J and Connell, J., 2015, Tourism: A Modern Synthesis, Translated by: Davar Khani et al., Mahkameh Published,Tehran. (In Persian)
42. Papoli Yazdi, M. H., and Saghayi, M., 2007, Tourism (Nature and Concepts), Samt Published,Tehran. (In Persian)
43. Pourjahan, S., 2011, The Role of Destination Management Organizations in Sustainable Tourism Development, Tourism and Sustainable Development Conference, Islamic Azad University,Hamadan. (In Persian)
44. Rezaian, A., 2000, Principles of Management, Samt published, Tehran. (In Persian)
45. Rezvani, M. R., 2003, Analysis of the Trend of Creating and expanding of Second Homes in Rural Areas (Case Study: Rural Areas of the North of Tehran Province), Geographical Research, Vol. 35 No. 45, PP. 59-73. (In Persian)
46. Shamaee, A., and Musavand, J., 2011, Leveling of Counties of Isfehan Province in Term of Tourism Infrastructures by AHP and Topsis Models, Journal of Urban and Regional Study and Research, Vol. 3, No. 10, PP. 23-40. (In Persian)
47. Sharpley, R., 2008, Tourism, Tourists and Society, Elm Publications.
48. Sorensen, J., 1997, National and International Efforts at Integrated Coastal Zone Management: Definitions, Achievements, and Lessons, Coastal Management, Vol. 25, No. 1, PP. 3-41.
49. Guilan Province Management and Planning Organization, 2004, Statistical Yearbook of Guilan Province (In Persian)
50. UN Atlas of the Oceans, 2004, Recreation and Tourism, United Nations Environment Programme, [Online] Available At: Http://Oceansatlas.Org (October 17, 2006).
51. UNDP, 1998, Capacity Assessment and Development in a Systems and Strategic Management Context, Technical Advisory Paper No. 3, Management Development and Governance Division.
52. United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP], 2009, Sustainable Coastal Tourism/ an Integrated Planning and Management Approach, Retreived July, 2009, from Http://Unep.Org/Pdf/DTIE_PDFS/Dtix1091xpasustainablecoastaltourism-Planning.Pdf.
53. UNWTO, 2012, Yearbook of Tourism Statistics, UNWTO Publication, Available On, Http://Unwto.Org.
54. Wilson, P., and Wheeler, D. P., 1997, California’s Ocean Resources: An Agenda for the Future, The Resource Agency of California, Ocean Resources Management Program, Sacramento, CA.
55. Zarghami Brojeni, H., 2010, Tourism Development Planning, Mahkameh Published, Tehran. (In Persian)