تحلیل تناسب چیدمان عناصر کالبدی فضا در منطقۀ رشد شهر با رویکرد توسعۀ پایدار شهری (مطالعۀ موردی: منطقۀ 22 تهران)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران

چکیده

شهر تهران، پایتخت ایران، از گذشته تا کنون چالش‌های اجتماعی، اقتصادی، فرهنگی، سیاسی و طبیعی متعددی همچون جنگ‌های جهانی، گذار از سنت به مدرنیسم و پست‌مدرنیسم و آثار تحولات جهانی را پشت‌سر گذاشته است. روند شهرنشینی و شهرسازی تهران، از شکل‌گیری تا کنون، در کنار تغییر و تحولات متأثر از عوامل و شرایط گوناگون زمانی-مکانی داخلی و خارجی، سبب ایجاد دگرگونی‌هایی در شکل و محدودة شهر و بروز شرایط جدیدی، با عنوان توسعة فیزیکی و کالبدی شهر به‌سمت حومه، حاشیه و پیرامون شده است؛ فرایندی پویا، با توالی و تسلسل که طی آن محدودة فیزیکی و فضای کالبدی شهر در جهات عمودی و افقی ازنظر کم و کیف به‌طور مداوم در حال گسترش و تغییر است. تداوم این روند سریع رشد، بدون اندیشه و برنامه، ترکیب فیزیکی فضای شهر را تخریب و بنیان پایداری شهر یا منطقة شهری را دچار بی‌تعادلی فضا می‌کند. هدف این پژوهش، بررسی نحوة شکل‌گیری و توسعة عناصر و اشکال فیزیکی فضا و تأثیر آن بر شرایط موجود با تحلیل تناسب انتظام این عناصر در منطقة 22 تهران به‌مثابة یک منطقة رشد یا گذار است. در این بررسی، هدف ارزیابی تأثیر عوامل مختلفی ازقبیل دریاچة چیتگر، شکل مسکن-معماری، زیر‌ساخت‌ها، چیدمان عناصر فضای کالبدی به‌خصوص شهرک‌ها، مجموعه‌های ورزشی تفریحی، در ایجاد شرایط موجود و وضع آتی منطقه است. در این پژوهش، آثار مستقیم و غیر‌مستقیم عناصر و اشکال فضایی در ایجاد شرایط موجود از منظر رویکرد پایداری شهری در قالب تناسب عناصر کالبدی و انتظام عناصر در مواجهه با مبانی برنامه‌ریزی، طراحی و شهرسازی پایدار و چگونگی تحقق پایداری فضای شهری ارزیابی و تحلیل شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the Proportionality Arrangement of the Spatial Physical Elements in Urban Growth Zone Based on Urban Sustainable Development Approach (Case Study: District 22, Tehran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rahmat Allah Farhoudi 1
  • Ali Mohammad Naseri 2
  • Zahra Pishgahifard 1
1 Assistant Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD Candidate in Geography and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Since Tehran has been chosen as Iran’s capital, it has left behind several difficult challenges such as world wars, the transition from traditional to modernism and postmodernism and the effects of global development. Since the primary formation the process of urbanization and urban development has undergone a lot of changes. These changes and vicissitudes, influenced by a variety of conditions such as place, time, and internal and external factors, has made changes in the form, shape and size of the city which in turn lead to a series of new conditions such as the dimension and physical expansion of the suburb. There is a continuously dynamic process during which the physical surrounding of the city is always developing in different qualities and directions. The continuous process of this rapid growth destroys the physical form of the city and loses the balance of the sustainable base of the city. The purpose of this research is to study the formation and development of the physical shape of the space layout and its effects on the present situation and also to study the proportionality of these elements on Tehran, district 22 as a developing zone. In this research, I am going to evaluate the effects of the different factors in making the present situation to predict the future situation.
The city was important as the result of human civilization since the farthest time, and has been the basic reasons for the existence of the primary civilization. At the inception of the recent century, the growth of industry and technology causes the extension of urban development. This physical development growth is influenced by natural and human phenomena and parameters and causes the spans. These changes are continuous and sequential. The effect of this factor has been different and varied in different parts of the world.  
    Urban growth in nature has rebellious substantiate character, which needs to harness, direct, and control policy makings. Because, in one hand, it must be with intellectual and logical, advocate, control making houses, and on other hand, it could lead to eliminating the causes of reasonable construction of physical abnormalities that prevent arises.  
The effects of urbanization changes in Iran in recent century in social, economic, political, and urban population have been increasing. Urban population was, in 1957-%31.6, 1967-%47, 1977-%54.2, from the total population of Iran country. According to the 1991 statistics, population of Iran was 57.8 million people, equal to 54.3 percent in urban areas. Despite awareness of the adverse effects caused by uncontrolled developments in the natural environment it cannot be prevented from development. We believe that the concept of sustainable development is as old as the cities on the planet genesis. This trend has been even more rapid in the next decades. This trends has been taken from past to now. These sudden changes in increase show that the cities of Iran have passed different and hard conditions in postindustrial age that caused new forms in the city.  These changes extremely influenced migration, technology and industry growth in Iran and world level and also made changes in oil and petroleum funds dependent on industrial manufactures, social, economic and political macro revolution, and develop transportation capacities. Thus, in new region around the city we usually see infestation of influential beneficiaries. Such conflicts caused anomaly and irregularity in the growth, expansion and development of the city. 
    Despite the awareness, the adverse effects caused by uncontrolled development cannot be prevented from developing cities today. That is why the sustainable development discussion today is almost important and noticeable.
    Reviewing the research about district 22, the question raised here is that: Is there any method for sustainability in the new regions, around the city as the main bases of the city?  The recent face, morph and form of the district in Tehran city represent sustainability of nearby cities and potential of this important zone? And how we can try to whit the sustainability view in remaining city morph, the houses of region? How is the high balance making in Chitgar Lake with city sustainable development of city? In this study after saying the bases and a brief history of city sustainability development and completely explain studies of Mantageh 22 Tehran city and accommodating.
Methodology 
The method used in this study is descriptive with library studies, field operation and frequent visits to sites, maps, tables and graphs. This study is an applicable descriptive analysis. This research is a descriptive, objective, consistent, and genuine characteristic of Tehran district 22 as a study subject that is the urban sustainability of this zone. The approaches used in this study are data analyses such as random sampling by interviewing the different people in the area as shopkeepers and sightseers of Chitgar Lake, cause-effect analysis, contemporary forms, and structural elements of space and expression of the results in the context of sustainable urban development on individual bases.
In this research, we posed this question that there is any way to reach sustainability in new regions around the city as the bases for urban development. There are many ways to reach sustainability in the city, but these ways are often lost in extant of the subject. On the other hand, there are some ways of resolving the city problems but, it is better than doing nothing. These solutions sometimes are suitable and just need an understanding and knowledge, but they often lose the extant of the subject matter. 
Results and discussion 
This research is an analysis of the proportionality arrangement of the spatial physical elements in district 22 Tehran with urban sustainable development view. Thus, at the beginning I explain physical space of the case study to examine the arrangement of the spatial element and any physical space in this district of Tehran city.    
The function and situation of regional towns in this district of Tehran and their location show this reality, that distribution of physical space consists of full and vacant spaces. Types of houses are generally similar in, material, forms, quality architecture, density and floors. In older spaces limit and boundary domains are blended, so we can see boundary of towns, in such an area. The high rise buildings can destroy the sky line, porosity, the landscape and the symmetry, and they also cause unsustainability in the design of physical space. Thus, design without modality is the main space, so that spectator is faced with confusion. Spaces are strongly unsustainable, without sense, emotion and spirit, and it seems that these towns are just built for dormitory function. This condition is in the oldest towns, because that’s built with the plan in which these problems of space are less seen.
Conclusion 
At the beginning of this research we asked a question of how the new regions around the city, as growth zone, can lead to sustainability. It seems that because these regions, are in different condition, they are always in physical growth. The changes are continuing, these changes continue until they get relatively stable. This event may take several years. This may take a long time for the urban growth zone to reach relative stability and to get out to relative balances. Thus, we can say that it may get out to sustainability in urban planning, city design, but to receive that it needs more study of the different and local conditions of the city. It seems there are solutions for the city and but it may be like an exam that includes true and false options.
Another subject that is explained in this research is how we can try to get an optimized image and form of the district 22? It may be said that today this region of Tehran is in bad condition, as some people who have some common and illegal benefits may be interested in misusing the situation.  These common interests cause a form of competition. These competitions may result in changes of the image of the city and put it in bad conditions. This is outside the usual rules. These regulations change the image of the city.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • urban sustainable development
  • physical studies
  • physical growth of city
  • growth zone
  • district 22
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