هوشمندسازی، رویکردی در تحقق توسعة پایدار شهری (مطالعة موردی: منطقة 6 تهران)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی تهران

2 دانشیار جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی تهران

3 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی تهران

چکیده

توسعة پایدار از مهم‌ترین دغدغة پژوهشگران در دهه‌های اخیر است؛ زیرا تمامی ابعاد و جنبه‌های زندگی بشر را دربرمی‌گیرد. براین‌اساس، اصطلاح توسعه، معطوف به ارتقای سطح و کیفیت زندگی افراد و بهبود رفاه عمومی جامعه و پایداری آن است و به استمرار این فرایند در طول نسل‌های بشر اشاره دارد. در این زمینه، شهر هوشمند نه واقعیت بلکه نوعی راهبرد محسوب می‌شود که در جهت چشم‌انداز توسعة آینده به آن توجه شده است. این شهر به چگونگی شکل‌دهی شهر توسط شهروندان و اینکه چگونه می‌توان به امر توسعة پایدار شهری کمک کرد و به آن سرعت بخشید، اشاره دارد. تراکم بالای زندگی و وابستگی به منابع مشترک، شهرها را در موقعیتی قرار می‌دهند که به مکان‌هایی برای توسعة پایدار تبدیل می‌شوند؛ بنابراین هدف این پژوهش بررسی نقش شهر هوشمند (محیط هوشمند، پویایی هوشمند، اقتصاد هوشمند، حکمرانی هوشمند، زندگی هوشمند و مردم هوشمند) در تحقق توسعة پایدار شهری برای منطقة 6 کلان‌شهر تهران با بهره‌مندی از 14 محله است. پژوهش حاضر پیمایشی است و داده‌های آن به‌کمک پرسشنامه که اعتبار صوری دارد جمع‌آوری شد. برای دستیابی به میزان پایایی پرسشنامه نیز از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد. نتایج نشان می‌دهد هوشمندی و پایداری شهری رابطة هم‌بستگی مستقیمی دارند. همچنین براساس نتایج تحلیل رگرسیونی، سه عامل تحرک هوشمند، مردم هوشمند و زندگی هوشمند از مهم‌ترین عوامل مؤثر بر پایداری به‌شمار می‌آیند. زندگی هوشمند تأثیرگذارترین و مهم‌ترین عامل تبیین پایداری است و پس از آن به‌ترتیب تحرک هوشمند و مردم هوشمند قرار دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Making Smart; an Approach for Attaining Sustainable Urban Development (Case Study: District 6 Tehran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hasan Esmaeilzadeh 1
  • Zohreh Fanni 2
  • Seyyedeh Fatemeh Abdoli 3
1 Assistant Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
3 MA in Geography and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The concept of the smart city over the past two decades has found great popularity in the realm of science and politics. The term of development focuses on improvement of the level and quality of life for individuals and enhancement of the general welfare of society. Its sustainability refers to the continuity of this process throughout the human generations. As a result, the sustainable development will encompass all the aspects and dimensions of human life. Sustainable development focuses on the qualitative and quantitative aspects. Since 1990, the term of Smart City has been expanded with the liberation of telecommunications and the development of services provided through the internet.
What drives a city into intelligence is not merely the application of electronic device and communication system of that city. The Smart City is a city administering all the affairs of its citizens online including public and private services. Thus, one of the main differences between the smart city and other urban concepts (virtual city, electronic city, digital city, etc.) is the ability of the smart city to answer and solve the urban problems of citizens in a hierarchy. The citizens of Smart city have a high responsibility for their settlement because they are more aware of their own city and can participate in its administration. They will provide service at their level of participation. Thus, the major roles the smart city can play are including smart environment, smart mobility, smart economy, smart governance, smart life and smart people. This study attempts to examine sustainable urban development in Tehran 6th metropolitan area with 14 neighborhoods. One of the main physical features is its location in the city center of Tehran in one hand and the establishment of the most important administrative-service utilities with a transnational, urban and even national scale of service-oriented utilization on the other hand. This kind of application is faced with many challenges and problems such as blending of resources, population overflow in the region, concentration of ministries and important national organizations. These factors can cause instability in the neighborhoods of this region.
Methodology
The current study was conducted using a survey method and a questionnaire tool to collect data. Measurement tools (questionnaires) have formal validity. Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was used to obtain validity of the tool. The statistical population of this study is all the residents in the district 6 of Tehran, by cluster sampling method. 
The district 6 may be considered as one of the central areas of Tehran. This neighborhood is geographically limited to the Enghelab Islami Street from the south, to the Hemmat highway from the north, to the Modarres highway from the east and to the Shahid Chamran highway from the west. The district of the municipality is divided into 14 neighborhoods.   
Results and discussion
The results of this study indicate that there is a solid correlation between smart environment, smart governance, smart mobility, smart people, smart living, and smart economy. Each of the smart urban components will increase the stability of the district. This finding is confirmed by the research findings of Su, Li and Fu (2011), Awosusi and Jegede (2013), Lee and Hu (2013). The results of regression analysis have indicated that three factors of smart mobility, smart people and their smart life affect their significant sustainability as the most important factors. The proportions of the smart mobility, smart people and smart lives are 26%, 16%, and 28%, respectively. Thus, among these factors, smart life is the most influential factor in explaining sustainability. The results of this research are consistent with the research by Ni and Liu (2014).
Conclusion
The term of development focuses on improving the level and quality of life of individuals and improving the general welfare of the community, and its sustainability refers to the continuation of this process in future. In this way, sustainable development embraces all aspects and dimensions of human life. Paying attention to the purposes, principles and philosophy of sustainable development explain that sustainability of development depends on the participation of the people of a country in the planning, implementation and evaluation of projects. Since sustainable development has a quantitative and qualitative dimension, it is necessary to change the attitudes, skills, and perspectives of individuals. The development proceeds more quickly and this is not possible without the cooperation of all people. In sustainable development, people constitute the true wealth of every nation, and the purpose of development is to create conditions to enable people to enjoy a long healthy life.  
Over the past decades, cities have become increasingly important in economic, environmental, social, and development trends. These agents, in turn, depend on the real and focal point of political and economic strategies. The smart city is about how citizens can shape the city and how it can contribute to urban development. The smart cities join to each other by strategic planning initiatives from a bottom-up perspective. The planning approaches from top to bottom and from bottom to top must be complementary. The areas, neighborhoods, and urban spaces are key elements of smart city strategies. Therefore, the current paper argued that the use of new methods such as urban intelligence with intelligent economy, smart people, smart environment, intelligent mobility, and intelligent governance can realize purposes of urban sustainability. The main goals are including supply of basic needs, improvement of living standards, better management of ecosystems and a secure future in several economic, social, cultural, environmental, and physical aspects. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • smart city
  • Sustainable urban development
  • sustainability
  • communications and information
  • district 6 of Tehran
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