نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
دانشیار جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه پیام نور
عنوان مقاله [English]
Urban construction is important from various economic, social and cultural dimensions. Violations in urban construction in conflict with these dimensions and urban development plans could lead to the impact and change in the distribution of urban activities, levels assigned to them and distribution of different land use in the city and their logical relationship together, in common. This has broken down the basis of these plans and has had negative effects on different dimensions; it has deprived the city of proper and efficient texture and skeletons. In this regard, one of the important authorities that can handle these dimensions and lead to urban discipline and urbanization is the article 100 Commission of the Municipality. According to article 100 of Municipalities Law, the owners of land and mortgages within the scope of the services must obtain a building license from the municipalities before construction and the municipality is obliged to prevent unauthorized or unlawful construction operations by their agents on the enclosed ground. In the opposite case, it is prevented from referring to its agents and for referral to the 100 Commission. In the city of Yazd, approximately 1,000 building licenses with an infrastructure of 354600 square meters are annually issued, which is the number of 261 building construction licenses in area 1, 341 in area 2, 543 in area 3 and 34 in historic area. Only in one of the three areas of the city of Yazd in 2011, we can see refer to the commissions under Article 100 of the Municipality Law. In this period, 721 violations have been filed and subsequently it has been tried to issue a statutory vote. Given the statistics and the proximity of violations in a region with the construction license number of the whole city of Yazd, the depth and breadth of the phenomenon of construction violations, which only includes violations that have been reported and the case filed, show that there might be more such issues not reported. The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors affecting the function of this commission and formulate strategies for the positive effects of the commission on urbanization and urban planning in Yazd.
According to the studied components, the method of investigation is functional and the approach taken by this research is "analytical -descriptive". Data collection is sampled through a case of construction violations. The statistical population is the number of construction licenses issued as well as the number of cases of violations during different years in different areas of Yazd. In order to carry out the analytical processes, this research has used Schematic planning scenario model and Mick Mack software.
Results and discussion
The studies show that among the 9934 cases examined, 7824 cases were filed scilicet and 78.7% of which were attributed to the Election Commission and 2104 to other cases, which include 21.1% of the total number of cases. Among the votes of the Red Election Commission, the "deconstruction-fine and restoration order" are assigned the largest number of cases with 37.3 percent of the total cases, equivalent to 3715 cases, which unfortunately ended 100 percent for implementation of the Commission's 100-member vote to pay fines. This function of the 100th Commission Committee on Social Dimensions leads to a decrease in the level of social supervision, in the urban dimension of heterogeneity in the skyline, in the environmental dimension of incompatibility caused by inappropriate use of the neighborhood and in the security and safety aspects of the reduction of safety and security due to lack of attention to national regulations.
The variables related to urban laws and the lacks of coordination between organizations associated with the subject have had a great deal of impact on the performance of Article 100 and also the lack of ambiguity in construction laws and regulations. This has had the greatest impact on the performance of Article 100. Among the key factors affecting the performance of the Article 100 Commission in Yazd, the lack of ambiguity in construction laws and regulations has had the greatest impact on the performance of Article 100. The lack of comprehensiveness and transparency in the criteria and even directives and the vacuum of a separate management have been selected in the municipal charters as the most effective factors in the performance of Article 100. The most critical factor in the performance scenarios of the article is the two factors of lack of knowledge and information in of the executives in the field of urban rights and the lack of organizational management of urban projects. The key factor of urban development, with an average of -0.6, shows that there was a lack of integrated urban management in the good and bad performances of the commission. The factor of serious failures in the urban construction control section with an average of -0.44 indicates weak control of urban construction. This has had a major impact on the unsuccessful performance of the 100 Commission. Accordingly, for the desirable performance of the commission in Yazd, the following solutions are suggested: reducing the process of considering construction fines as a source of income for the municipality, identify construction violations as crimes, integrated urban management, reducing the lack of coordination and organizational segmentation of urban management, forming a separate management for the item in the municipal organization chart, increasing comprehensiveness and transparency in terms and sectors, eliminating old laws and reducing the legal misuse by internal and external elements of urban management, increasing the capacity needed to improve the knowledge of executives and reduce legal abuses, increasing volition in the municipality to reduce legal uncertainties and reduce lack of coordination, reducing inter-organizational and managerial disparities at the municipality and higher levels.
13. Alnsour, J. & J. Meaton. (2009). “Factors Affecting Compliance with Residential Standards in the City of Old Salt”. Jordan. Habitat Int. 33.
14. Arimah, C & D. Adeagbo. (2000). “Compliance with Urban Development and Planning Regulations in Ibadan”. Nigeria. Habitat Int.
15. Beheshti Roy, M. (1993). “Study of the Physical Effects of Construction in Cities (Case study: Tehran)”. Master's Thesis. University of Tehran. Faculty of Fine Arts. Department of Urban Planning. (in Persian).
16. Cliff, E. (2000). History of Cities and City Planning. www.Catalog.Com.
17. Fekade, W. (2000). “Deficits of Formal Urban Land Management and Informal Responses Under Rapid Urban Growth: an International Perspective”. Habitat Int.
18. Few, R., N. Gouveia, T. Mathee, A. Harpham, A. Cohn& A. Swart. (2004). “Informal Subdivision of Residential and Commercial Buildings in Sao Paulo and Johannesburg: Living Conditions and Policy Implications”. Habitat Int. 30(1).
19. Hosseini, S. A. (2006). Technical and Administrative Bases of Urban and Regional Rights. Tehran: Haghshenas Publications. (in Persian).
20. Ioannidis, Ch, Ch. Psaltis & Ch. Potsiou. (2009). “Towards a Strategy for Control of Suburban Informal Buildings Through”. Automatic Change Detection. Comput Environ Urban. 33.
21. Kahraman, S., A. Saati & S. Misir. (2006). Effects of Adding Illegal Storeys to Structural Systems. Sâdhanâ 31. www.ias.ac.in/sadhana > Retrieved October 2009.
22. Kapoor, M & D. Blanc. (2008). “Measuring Risk on Investment in Informal (Illegal) Housing: Theory And Evidence From, Pune, India”. Reg Sci Urban Econ. 38.
23. Karimi, M. J. (2001). “Analysis and Investigation of the Causes of Construction Violations in Yazd City and its Effects on Reducing the Strength and Instability of Structures Against Static and Dynamic Forces”. Master's Thesis. Yazd University. Civil Department. (in Persian).
24. Masoom, J. & J. Aliabadi. (2001). “Urban Construction Management”. Monthly Journal of Municipalities. Third Year. New Volume. No. 33. (in Persian).
25. Motamedi, M. (1989). Urban and Urban Planning in Iran with Emphasis on New Towns. Tehran: Samt Publications & Planning and Budget Organization. (in Persian).
26. Ogu, V. (1999). “Housing Enablement in a Developing World City: the Case Study of Benin City”. Nigeria. Habitat Int. 23.
27. Pak-Nejad, R. (2001). “Investigating the Factors Affecting Violations in Urban Construction (Case Study: Tabriz)”. Master Thesis. Tarbiat Modares University. Faculty of Arts. (in Persian).
28. Saeed-Niya, A. (1999). Green Book-Guide for Municipalities: Urbanism (Vol. I). Tehran: Publications of the Municipal Organization of the City. Center for Urban Studies and Planning. (in Persian).
29. Saeed-Niya, A. (1999). Green Book-Guide for Municipalities: Urban Land Use (Vol. II).Tehran: Urban Studies and Planning Center. (in Persian).
30. Saeed-Niya, A. (1999). “Urban Development Plans- Problems and Strategies”. Monthly Municipalities. First Year, Issue 8. (in Persian).
31. Samadi Ghoshchi, Y. (1998). Construction Violations in the Legal System of Iran. Tehran: Jangal Publishing (in Persian)..
32. Sorkhili, E & M. Rafiyan. (2010). “Pathology of Incomes from Construction Violations in Tehran Municipality”. Collection of Articles of the Municipal Finance Conference. Tehran. (in Persian).
33. Van der Heijden, J. (2006). “Enforcing Dutch Building Regulation, Housing an Expanding Europe, Theory, Policy, Participation and Implementation”. Paper. Presented at the ENHR Conference. Ljubljana. Slovenia.
34. Zegarac, Z. (1999). “Illegal Construction in Belgrade and Prospects for Urban Development Planning”. Cities. 16 (5).