عنوان مقاله [English]
This research is to distinguish physical characteristics of Islamic Iranian urban structures compared with contemporary urban structures in medieval Europe. The urban structures were developed in the existing conditions of that time. Architectural and urban spaces are the physical phenomena reflecting many cultural, social, and civilization characteristics of a society. Hence, they can be used to imagine history and culture of a society. Therefore, in different regions with different religions and ideologies, we can observe different morphological structures.
Islamic urban cities and medieval cities were studied by many researchers. However, the researches about the urban morphology have rarely focused on the comparison of the two contemporary urban physical developments in Islamic Iranian and medieval cities in a case study by qualitative analysis. Furthermore, it was not cleared how these differences in cultures, ideology, religion, and governments could lead to physical changes and similarities in urban landscape. In most of the previous studies about urban morphology and classification of the morphology, the categorization is limited to the major elements of street, block, and buildings. In this research, we have analyzed the approaches in the two cities to detect the factors forming organizations and structures. The purpose of this research is to analyze the forming state and organization of the cities in two periods of Islamic Iranian and medieval. For this, we have examined historical background, physical properties, and formative factors of the cities.
We have used qualitative variables in this research. The qualitative variables prepared using library studies have been analyzed by diagram and 3 dimensional modeling. Although non-physical factors, addition to physical urban factors, are also considered in this research, but this study has mainly emphasized on English school of Conzen urban morphology. Thus, this study has not considered historical aspects of Italian school and social interactions of French school. Therefore, the physical parameters have been compared with each other in two groups of principal components of urban texture and single structures using evaluation matrix. We have considered the major patterns of the structures in this period, not exceptional cases.
We have examined the urban morphology of Islamic Iranian cities and European medieval cities to extract characteristics of their elements, urban design, analysis system, and morphology types. After categorization of these morphologies, we have analyzed the morphologies in two sample cities of Rey and Siena to obtain similarities and differences and also their characteristics.
In physical component of urban texture, according to Lynch, the data have been divided into five elements including paths (commercial spaces of market), edges (gates and walls), districts, nodes (square), and landmarks. Then, the results have been analyzed in three levels of macro scale (spatial organization and development), meso scale (structure and arrangement), and micro scale (architecture and performance of components). About the single structures, the data have been analyzed by their landuse types. All urban elements, including mosque and church, houses, bath, school, municipality building, and etc., have been analyzed in their special land-uses. These elements have been assessed in terms of location in city, building material, function, typology, and structure pattern. We have compared the two sample cities of Rey as an Islamic Iranian sample and Siena as a medieval sample.
Results and discussion
The elements of urban morphology have been determined in a literature review to examine the similarities and differences of the two kinds of cities. Rey City was formed before Islamic period and developed after that. The Siena is also a sample of medieval city keeping principal characteristics of that time.
Spatial organization of Rey City, as an epitome of Islamic Iranian city, has an organic complex with a compact texture. The houses and private spaces are located around the mosques without disturbance. Spatial arrangement of the neighborhoods and city had an organic growth. Spatial organization of Siena, as a good sample of European medieval city, is also formed in accordance with topography. The city is developed along hills. Most of the urban landscape is formed due to historic events.
In Rey City, the central mosque is functioning as the heart of the city and Baazar (traditional market) is performing as spine around which the neighboring houses are developed. The houses in the city are located around the entrance of the city towards the mosque in center of the space. The Siena is composed of some section connected to each other in the main square as conjunction. Along the main paths with more regular state relative to narrow streets, the stores are located. The paths are elongated from city gate to Central Square and central church as a two section core.
The results of this study have indicated that the urban structure of the Islamic Iranian and medieval cities are mainly similar in spatial organization, development form, spatial structure, and arrangement. The differences of the two types of the cities are mainly in micro-scale and single structures and architecture. Similarities and differences in natural, cultural, economic, social, military-political conditions, and government system are among the main causes of physical variability in different geographical regions. This can also form identity of spaces.
The results of this study have also indicated that the formative elements of Islamic Iranian cities and European medieval cities have so regular arrangement that in an integrated system they can meet the requirements of the citizens. The identity of the cities is defined by their preferential special architecture. Therefore, the principles and structures of the old cities and the development appropriate to urban texture and single structures can be useful for today urban development to manage inharmonic development of urban spaces and reinforcement of place identity. Taking these old elements into account and following the principles of the Islamic Iranian and medieval cities can help have a more competent urban planning and better meet the needs of residents in contemporary cities.
45. Abu Lughod, J. L., 1987, The Islamic City: History Myth, Islamic Essence, and Contemporary Relevance, International Journal of Middle East Studies, PP. 155-176.
46. lizadeh, H., and Habibi, K., 2011, Shaping Factors in Historical Islamic Cities, Iranian Islamic City Journal, No. 3, PP. 71-76. (In Persian)
47. Amini Hjibashi, M., 2016, A Comparative Study of Islamic Urbanism and Urban Medieval Times in Europe in Terms of Morphology, Supervised By Mahmud Rezaei, Master’s Thesis in Urban Design, IAUCTB. (In Persian)
48. Ardalan, N., 2011, The Sense of Unity: The Sufi Tradition in Persian Architecture, Translated by Vandad Jalili Into Farsi, Science Architect Royal, Tehran. (In Persian)
49. Ashraf, A., 1974, Historical Features of Urbanization in Iran Islamic Period. (In Persian)
50. Bacon, E., 2007, Design of Cities, Translated by Farzaneh Taheri Into Farsi, 2nd Ed, Tehran: Center for Urban Studies and Architecture of Iran. (In Persian)
51. Benevolo, L., 2007, The History of the City, Translated by Parvaneh Movahed Into Farsi, University Publisher Center. (In Persian)
52. Burckhardt, T., 2009, Art of Islam:Language and Meaning, World Wisdom.
53. Burckhardt, T., 2013, Siena, City of the Virgin, Translated by Mehrdad Vahdati Into Farsi, Hekmat, Tehran. (In Persian)
55. Danesh, J., (2010), Principles of Formation and Organization of Islamic City, Iranian Islamic City Journal, No. 1, PP. 15-31. (In Persian)
56. Ebrahimi, M., 2009, Square; Not Defined Spaces in Iranian Cities, Hoviatshahr Journal, No. 4, Tehran, PP. 107-120. (In Persian)
57. Einifar, A., 2007, Dominant Role of Common Patterns in Contemporary Residential Neighborhoods Design, Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba Journal, No. 32, PP. 39-50. (In Persian)
58. Falamaki, M., 2012, La Formation De L’Architecture Dans Les Experiences De L’Iran Et Des Pays De L’Occident, Ed 3, Faza Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)
59. Falahat, S., 2011, The Construction of the Islamic City, Iranian Islamic City Journal, No. 3, PP. 35-44. (In Persian)
60. Gallion, E., 1963, The Urban Pattern: City Planning and Design, 2ND Edition
61. Ghobadian, V., and Rezaei, M., 2013, The First Modern Plaza in Tehran, Human Geography Research Quadterly, No. 4, PP. 177-196. (In Persian)
62. Habibi, M., 2013, De La Cite A La Ville Analyse Historique De La Conception Urbaine Et Son Aspect Physique, Tehran University, Publishing Institute, Tehran. (In Persian)
63. Kariman, H., 1975, Ancient Ray, Shahid Beheshti University Publisher, Tehran. (In Persian)
64. Kariman, H., 1992, Ancient Ray, Shahid Beheshti University Publisher, Tehran. (In Persian)
65. Khajeh Nabi, F., and Kouchaki, M., 2013, Analyzing The Role of the Market in Islamic Cities, National Conference on Architecture and Urbanism Humanist, Qazvin Islamic Azad University. (In Persian)
66. Khodaverdi, H., 2008, Qualitative Research Methodology, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, No. 21, PP. 41-62. (In Persian)
67. Kiani, M., 2005, Iranian Architecture of the Islamic Period, Tehran. (In Persian)
68. Kiani, M., 1989, Cities of Iran, Vol. 3, Cultural Printer and Islamic Guidance. (In Persian)
69. Morris, J., 1995, History of Urban Form Before the Industrial Revolution, Translated by Razieh Rezazadeh Into Farsi, 12th Ed, Tehran, Science and Industry University. (In Persian)
70. Movahed, A. and Shamaei, A., 2012, Recognition of Physical Identity in Islamic Cities, Quarterly of Geography (Regional Planning), No. 5, PP. 37-51. (In Persian)
71. Mumford, L., 2002, The City in History, Translated by Ahmad Azimi Into Farsi, First Ed, Rasa Cultural Services, Tehran. (In Persian)
72. Naghizadeh, M., 2010, Contemplation on Islamic City Quiddity, Iranian Islamic City Journal, No. 9, PP. 1-14 (In Persian)
73. Naghizadeh, M., 1995, Islamic City Characteristics in Islamic Texts, Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba Journal, No.4 and 5, PP. 47-61. (In Persian)
74. Nasr, H., 2010, Islamic Art and Spirituality, Hekmat Publisher, Tehran. (In Persian)
76. Osman, A., 1997, Islamic Medina, Translateb by Ali Cherghi Into Farsi, First Ed, Amirkabir Publisher. Tehran. (In Persian)
77. Pakzad, J., 2011, The History of Iranian City From Beginning to Qajar Dynasty, First Ed, Armanshahr, Tehran. (In Persian)
78. Pakzad, J., 2013, History of European City From Greek Polis to Industrial Revolution, 2nd Ed,, Armanshahr, Tehran. (In Persian)
79. Pazouki, N., 2009, Cheshmeh Ali and Rey Castle, First Ed, Tehran: Tehran Beautification Organization. (In Persian)
80. Peychev, S., 2010, Max Weber and the Islamic City, Retrieved January 1, 2011, From Academia, edu: http://illinois.academia.edu/stefanpeychev/about.
81. Pour Ahmad, A., and Vafaei, A., Comparative Comparison of Islamic City Structure with Western City, Iranian Islamic City Journal, No. 18, PP. 5-12. (In Persian)
82. Pourmohammadi, M., and Jamali, S., 2011, Analysis of the Morphology of Urban Schools, Geographical Studies of Arid Zones Journal, No. 5, PP. 1-16. (In Persian)
83. Rezaei, M., 2013, Eternal and International Concepts of Islamic Cities (Revealing Urban Islamic Views Far Beyond the Body and Time), Human Geography Research Quadterly, No. 3, PP. 169-190. (In Persian)
84. Sadeghi, SH., 2014, The Formation of Modern Urban Spaces Based Sustainable Model Islamic City, Supervised by Mahmoud Rezaei, Master’s Thesis in Urban Design, IAUCTB. (In Persian)
85. Soltanzadeh, H., 2016, Mosques Location and Their Relationship with Other Important Spaces in Historic Cities, Human Geography Research Quadterly, No. 2, PP. 363-367. (In Persian)
86. Soltanzadeh, H., 2010, A Solid Cornerstone of Iranian Architecture, 2nd Ed, Cultural Research Bureau, Tehran. (In Persian)
87. Soltanzadeh, H., 2011, A Brief of the City and Urbanization in Iran, First Ed, Chahartagh Publisher, Tehran. (In Persian)
88. Soltanzadeh, H., 1993, Urban Spaces in the Historical Texture of Iran, 2nd Ed, Cultural Research Bureau, Tehran. (In Persian)
89. Spahic, O., 2005, The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and Urbanization of Madinah, IIUM Press.
90. Spuler, B., 2007, Iran in the Early Islamic Period, Translated by Maryam Mirahmadi Into Farsi, Vol 2, 5th Ed, Cultural Academic Press, Tehran. (In Persian)
91. UNESCO World Heritage Centre
92. Whitehand, W. R., 2007, Conzenian Urban Morphology and Urban Landscapes, In “6Th International Space Syntax Symposium, Istanbul, 2007.
93. WHC.Unesco.Org/En/List/717 (World Heritage List, Siena, NO717)
94. Zyari, K., 2003, The Impact of Culture in the City (Emphasis on Islamic Culture), Geography and Development Iranian Journal, No 2, PP. 95-109. (In Persian) 20's District of Tehran Municipality, http://region20.tehran.ir.