عنوان مقاله [English]
Nowadays, comparing the urban planning standards to the use of green spaces in different cities of Iran, it is clear that many cities face major shortcomings in this regard. Also inappropriate frequency and lack of fair distribution have caused problems for people such as uneasy access. The objective of this study was to investigate urban socio-economic homogeneous neighborhoods to emphasize the fair use of green spaces and parks. Delphi technique and TOPSIS algorithms were used to test and determine indices and alternatives and to do measurements. The test results showed that Bakhsh Hasht neighborhood is the most homogeneous neighborhood with the closeness coefficient to the ideal 0.98. The closeness coefficients to the ideals of the other neighborhoods are as follows: Nahzat –Jaame Jam 0.84, Imamzadeh Abbas Jonubi 0.83, Pivandi-Mirzamani 0.82, Baft markazi 0.51, Tabarestan 0.47 and Moalem Shomali 0.44. In addition, the most deprived neighborhoods with low green space and closeness coefficients to the ideal were the neighborhoods: Posht hotel and Mahdi Abad with the coefficient 0.
Measurement of green space at the neighborhood level is very important, because neighborhoods are in the primary level for action on green space strategies. Neighborhood means closeness and connectivity and can be defined as the domain of homogeneous characteristics. Green space inequality can ease environmental health inequalities. Thus, identifying vulnerable neighborhoods and demographic groups plays an important role in epidemiologic research and healthy urban planning. Therefore, in this study, the level of green space in the social and economic homogeneous neighborhoods of the city is investigated, and the currently existing inequalities are explained. Therefore, the main questions of the research that are taken into consideration are as follows:
1-What is the per capita position of the green space in the neighborhoods?
2. What is the ranking of green spaces in the neighborhoods of Sari in terms of social justice?
The present study is an applied study and uses descriptive-analytical method. Data collection is based on documentary and statistical method conducted in the Iranian Green Spaces and Parks Organization and statistical block of Sari Municipality. Analyzing and processing of the collected data, determining the indexes and ranking of the options were used by the use of hierarchical analysis models. Indicators were screened and calibrated using Delphi technique. To investigate spatial analysis, weights of the matrices of indices and altars (neighborhoods) along with complicated calculations of TOPSIS model, several software packages were used.
Results and discussion
By the use of Primary Paired Comparison Matrix, the final weights are calculated in the AHP model with the EXPERT CHOICE software to participate in the process of forming the matrix of the Topsis model. Using Delphi method in two stages, the experts of the Municipality as well as the experts Parks and Green Spaces Organization Sari, seven indicators were selected among several suggested indicators. In the review and study of the green spaces of Sari, the findings show that there is a more scientific definition of green space. In fact, we have two functional green spaces in the city, a biological green space (BGS) that includes ventilation and oxygen supply, aesthetic, psychological and environmental dimensions and another kind which is called a green social space (GSS) that includes green space equipped and a temporary residence for leisure and recreation. 7 justification indicators and inclusion of green space in the neighborhood are as follows:
1 - total per capita green space 2 -per capita of parks and squares (per capita of green social space) 3- features and facilities 4 - vitality and social happiness 5-social security 6-social participation and 7-distribution of green space (social) based on population.
Among the existing spaces, public spaces and social spaces (parks and fields) have per capita 1,045 m2, and Including boulevards, green triangular patches and other green spaces, they have a per capita of 6.22 m2 per person. According to findings and evaluation of research in terms of facilities,
there is one appropriate park in Bakhsh Hasht neighborhood with almost complete facilities and spaces and there are also two smaller parks with the appropriate green space for the neighborhood population and relatively with suitable facilities. Then, neighborhoods Jaame Jam and the Imam Zadeh Abbas Jonubi have the most favorable conditions among the other parks of the neighborhoods. Based on Social Security Indexes and social participation along with field observations and experts’ ranking, best numbers are given to 6 neighborhoods including: Mirzamani-pyvandi, Bakhsh Hasht, Jaame Jam, Tabaristan, Baft vije, and Moalem jonubi. The most desirable amounts of vitality in neighborhoods belong to the six pre-existing neighborhoods. Finally, in terms of the distribution of green spaces, Bakhsh Hasht was recognized as the most desirable neighborhood. By the use of the TOPSIS process, this study ranked the social homogeneous neighborhoods in terms of fair enjoyment of green space. Based on this algorithm, a matrix of variables and indexes was arranged. By performing calculations of the middle matrices of the model, we finally mapped the Euclidean distance of each positive and negative variant with the following formula.
In this article neighborhoods are divided into two types of physical and social-economic homogeneity in terms of the social justice. On this basis, the foundations of the formation of neighborhoods were noticed by socio-economic bases. In this research, green space is divided into two types of social green spaces with social function and biological green spaces with environmental function as a ventilation and refreshment of the city's space.
Social justice in neighborhoods of Sari city was measured based on the most important indicators of green space. According to the achieved results, the most enjoyable homogeneous neighborhoods in Sari city are according to the results, Bakhsh Hasht, Nehzat-Jaame Jam, Imam Zadeh Abbas Jonubi and Peyvandi-Mirzamani. In general, all neighborhoods of Sari are inadequate and unsanctioned in the green community, even in neighborhoods with more favorable socio-economic bases, the situation is far from ideal.
Homogeneous neighborhoods, enjoyment, green space, social justice, Sari city-