ارزیابی میزان فقر چندبعدی (قابلیتی) در مناطق روستایی شهرستان همدان با استفاده از روش آلکایر و فوستر

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی دانشگاه خوارزمی

2 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی دانشگاه خوارزمی

3 استادیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی دانشگاه خوارزمی

4 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی دانشگاه خوارزمی

چکیده

موفقیت برنامه‌های فقرزدایی، به شناسایی دقیق پدیدة فقر و معرف‌های آن بستگی دارد. شاخص فقر چندبعدی (MPI)، الگوی متفاوتی از فقر درآمدی ارائه می‌دهد و محرومیت‌هایی را که یک خانوار هم‌زمان با آن‌ مواجه می‌شوند، با هم ترکیب می‌کند؛ از این‌رو هدف مطالعة حاضر، برآورد شاخص فقر چندبعدی با استفاده از روش آلکایر و فوستر (AF) است. جامعة مورد مطالعه، خانوارهای روستایی ساکن در مناطق روستایی شهرستان همدان (27695=N) هستند. با استفاده از فرمول کوکران 855 خانوار به روش نمونه‌گیری طبقه‌ای چندمرحله‌ای از روستاهای نمونه (21 روستا) براساس سطوح توسعه‌یافتگی انتخاب شدند. در این مطالعه به‌منظور وزن‌دهی نماگرها براساس نظر کارشناسان (30=n) از نرم‌افزار Expert Choice و برای پردازش داده‌ها از نرم‌افزار Excel و Stata استفاده شد. براساس نتایج به‌دست‌آمده، وسعت فقر 01/49 درصد، شدت فقر 75/43 درصد و میزان شاخص چندبعدی فقر که حاصل‌ضرب این دو مقدار است، در مناطق روستایی شهرستان همدان 44/21 درصد است. همچنین نماگرهای درآمد، تغذیه، بیمة بازنشستگی و وضعیت اشتغال به‌ترتیب بیشترین سهم را در شاخص فقر چندبعدی دارند. درنهایت پس از محاسبة شاخص فقر چندبعدی به تفکیک روستاها، با استفاده از روش تحلیل خوشه‌ای سلسله‌مراتبی (روش وارد) روستاهای مورد مطالعه در سه خوشه طبقه‌بندی شدند و نتایج به‌کمک نرم‌افزار GIS به‌صورت نقشه نمایش داده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of multidimensional poverty (capability) in rural areas of Hamadan County by using Alkire and Foster method

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hassan Afrakhteh 1
  • Hamid Jalalian 2
  • Asghar Tahmasebi 3
  • maryam Armand 4
1 Kharazmi University
2 Kharazmi University
3 Kharazmi University
4 Kharazmi University
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Poverty reduction as the first goal of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is now the greatest global challenge. The main and central approach in the most economic analysis, from classical economics to development economics is income-based approach. And the failure of many development programs which are focused on poverty and inequality is due to serious deficiencies in limited and instrumental traditional perspective, which is income – focused (revenue – centric). In fact, since human being has a multi - dimensional nature and he should meet his different needs to provide an appropriate life, a one – dimensional look at income as a benchmark for prosperity is not a good indicator of poverty studies and it should be completed with other indicators such as housing, education, health, employment, social security, access to public facilities and …
In this regard, capability approach to the phenomenon of poverty and different indicators including Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) are explained to measure the extent and severity of poverty. In fact, the goal of capability approach and Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) is to identify the weakness of the basic facilities for individuals.
Methodology
The purpose of this study is to estimate Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) using Alkire and Foster (AF) method. The studied population is rural households which are living in rural areas of Hamadan County (N = 27695). In the first stage, in order to obtain a homogenous sample, using numerical taxonomic analysis (NTA) and based on the census data of 2011, the villages of Hamadan City (N = 100) in terms of developmental level and according to 55 sub – indicators were classified into three levels. In the next step, using Cochran's formula, the sample size were obtained 855 households, which according to a multi – stage stratified sampling method, the sampling was done from each level given the population of selected villages.
The steps of measuring multi – dimensional poverty can be summarized as follows: (1) selection of poverty analysis unit, (2) choosing the dimensions of poverty and indicators of each dimension, (3) choosing the threshold of deprivation of indicators and evaluation of the level of deprivation of each family per each indicator, (4) measuring the combined poverty index (the weighted average of each household's deprivation), selecting the second threshold of poverty and identifying the poor. In this study, the household is the unit of poverty analysis and the head of household is considered as a household representative.
To select dimensions from Human Development Report of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), research background and experts' opinions have been used and finally, 22 indices in the form of 5 dimensions were used to measure multi – dimensional poverty. In order to select the threshold of deprivation, the weighting of indicators was done using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, which is a weighting method based on the opinions of experts (n = 30). In this study, Expert Choice software was used for this purpose and Excel and Stata were used for data processing.
Results and Discussion
Based on the obtained results, the extent of poverty is 49.01%, Intensity of Poverty is 43.75% and the rate of multi-dimensional poverty index (MPI), which is the product of these two values, is 21.44% in rural areas of Hamadan. Indicators of income, nutrition, retirement insurance benefits and Employment status have the highest share in Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), respectively.
Also, the study of the ratio of censored census in each indicator shows that the indicators of having access to the internet, travel facilities, retirement insurance benefit, and income have the highest value in this parameter. This indicates that deprived people in each of these indicators have the largest number of multi – dimensional poor persons, respectively.
The findings show that the value of the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) in the less developed, developing, and developed rural areas has a downward trend. Also, comparing the extent and severity of poverty in these three regions shows that there is a significant difference in the extent of poverty. In terms of the severity of poverty, despite a downtrend, there is no significant difference. In the next step, multidimensional poverty index was estimated separately villages. According to the results, the villages of Sheverin (13.73%), Amzajerd (15.46%) and Boyukabad (16.07%) were the lowest and the villages of Shirabad (41.80%), Aq-Dash (38.35%) and Aliabadaq Aq-Hesar (36.10%) have the highest amount of multidimensional poverty respectively. Finally, using hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward method), the studies villages were classified into three clusters and the results were mapped using GIS software.
Conclusion
In this study, using the Alkire and Foster method and taking into account 4 dimensions and 19 indicators, the multi-dimensional poverty index was calculated in rural areas of Hamadan. Based on the obtained results, indicators of income, nutrition, retirement insurance benefits and Employment status have the highest share in Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), respectively.
In terms of employment and reducing income poverty, diversifying income sources and jobs in rural areas and provision of facilities, advertising and extensive training in order to accept insurance of agricultural products, and paying more attention to agricultural promotion systems to small-scale farming, in order to increase productivity and maintain income; and to reduce poverty, to provide mothers with adequate education through health centers to pay attention to a complete and healthy diet, and due to population aging and migration of young people from rural areas, the need for serious cultural development in the field of retirement insurance, in rural areas is recommended.
According to the obtained results, considering the geographical location of the studied villages, the poverty rate in the villages located in the plain is less than villages located in the mountain, valleys or hills, which is due to having better biological and living, the possibility of attracting more population and consequently, increasing of amenities. Therefore, creating regional equilibrium by balancing public, social, cultural, and educational facilities in rural areas and paying more attention to other features of villages with mountainous conditions, such as pleasant weather and rural texture in the direction of develop the tourism industry is proposed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Multidimensional Poverty
  • Alkire and Foster Method
  • capability approach
  • Rural Areas
  • Hamadan County
  1. ارشدی، علی و عبدالعلی کریمی، 1392، بررسی وضعیت فقر مطلق در ایران در سال‌های برنامة اول تا چهارم توسعه، فصلنامة سیاست‌های راهبردی و کلان، دورة اول، شمارة 1، صص 23-42.
  2. افتخاری، فرخ، کرمی، آیت‌اله و مهدی نوری‌پور، 1391، بررسی وضعیت فقر در مناطق روستایی استان کهگیلویه و بویراحمد، اقتصاد کشاورزی، دورة ششم، شماره 1، صص 179 -204.
  3. افتخاریان، پونه و مصطفی سلیمی‌فر، 1393، بررسی وضعیت فقر در مناطق شهری استان کرمان و مقایسة آن با کل کشور، فصلنامة پژوهشنامه اقتصادی، دوره 14، شماره 54، صص 213-238.
  4. اسفندیارپور، مهدیه، 1394، اندازه‌گیری فقر چندبعدی در ایران طی سال‌های 1388-1392 (با استفاده از روش آلکایر و فوستر)، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد اقتصاد، دانشگاه الزهرا.
  5. بسحاق، محمدرضا، تقدیسی، احمد و مسعود تقوایی، 1394، ارائة مدلی برای تبیین فقر در مناطق روستایی (مطالعة موردی: استان چهارمحال و بختیاری)، فصلنامة پژوهش و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، سال چهارم، شمارة 3، صص 115-126.
  6. تقی‌چیذری، شیرین، 1392، وزن‌دهی به ابعاد فقر چندبعدی، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد اقتصاد، به راهنمایی حسین راغفر، دانشگاه الزهرا.
  7. حسن‌خان، محمود، 1381، فقر روستایی در کشورهای درحال‌توسعه (الزاماتی برای سیاست‌گذاری عمومی)، ترجمة ابوالقاسم شریف‌زاده و کرم حبیب‌پور، فصلنامة اطلاعات سیاسی-اقتصادی، شمارة 177 و 178، صص 264-269.
  8. خالدی، کوهسار و زورار پرمه، 1384، بررسی وضعیت فقر در مناطق شهری و روستایی ایران (1382-1375)، فصلنامه اقتصاد کشاورزی و توسعه، دورة سیزدهم، شمارة 49، صص 57-82.
  9. خبرگزاری ایسنا، 1396، حاشیه‌نشینی همدان ناشی از مهاجرت روستاییان به شهر، کد خبر: 96112313212، قابل‌دسترس در سایت: https://www.isna.ir/news/96112313212
  10. خبرگزاری مهر، 1396، همدان رکورددار کاهش جمعیت در ایران، کد خبر: 4117418، قابل‌دسترس در سایت: https://www.mehrnews.com/news/4117418
  11. خدادادکاشی، فرهاد و علی‌اکبر سلیمان‌نژاد، 1391، برآورد خط فقر و بررسی تغییرات آن در مناطق روستایی استان اصفهان، فصلنامة پژوهشات جغرافیایی، دورة بیست‌و‌هفتم، شمارة 105، صص 91-114.
  12. خلج، سکینه و علی یوسفی، 1393، پهنه‌بندی توزیع و شدت فقر پندبعدی در مناطق شهری و روستایی ایران، فصلنامة برنامه‌ریزی و آمایش فضا، دورة هجدهم، شمارة 4، صص 49-70.
  13. درخشان، حمیدرضا و عطیه یگانلو، 1393، شاخص چندبعدی فقر در ایران (تبیین شاخص و برآورد بر مبنای استان‌ها)، انتشارات مؤسسه تحقیقاتی تدبیر اقتصاد، تهران.
  14. راغفر، حسین و زهرا ابراهیمی، 1386، فقر در ایران طی سال‌های 1368-1373، فصلنامة رفاه اجتماعی، دورة ششم، شمارة 24، صص 55-82.
  15. راغفر، حسین و مهدیه اسفندیارپور، 1394، اندازه‌گیری فقر چندبعدی در ایران طی سال‌های 1392-1388 (با استفاده از روش آلکایر و فوستر)، فصلنامة راهبرد اقتصادی، سال چهارم، شمارة 13، صص 201-233.
  16. زندی، ابتهال، 1389، تأثیر اشتغال بر کاهش فقر قابلیتی در دو بخش خدمات گردشگری و بیمارستانی، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.
  17. علی مددی، محمدصادق، 1388، اندازه‌گیری شاخص‌های چندبعدی فقر در ایران سال‌های 1383 و 1385، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد اقتصاد، دانشگاه صنعتی شریف، تهران.
  18. غفاری، غلامرضا و عباس حق‌پرست، 1383، نشانگرهای فقر در مناطق روستایی، فصلنامه جامعه‌شناسی ایران، سال پنجم، شماره 4، صص 32-48.
  19. فردانش، فرزین، 1377، فقر شهری، فقر روستایی، فصلنامة مسکن و محیط روستا، شمارة 83، صص 17-24.
  20. فطرس، محمدحسن و سوده قدسی، 1393، روش آلکایر و فوستر برای اندازه‌گیری فقر چندبعدی، مجله اقتصادی، شمارة 11 و 12، صص 77-92.
  21. محمدی‌یگانه، بهروز، چراغی، مهدی و زهرا یزدانی، 1393، تحلیل عوامل مؤثر بر توزیع فضایی فقر در نواحی روستایی، با تأکید بر ویژگی‌های اقتصادی-اجتماعی (موردشناسی: دهستان محمودآباد شهرستان شاهین‌دژ)، فصلنامة جغرافیا و آمایش شهری-منطقه‌ای، دورة چهارم، شمارة 13، صص 83-96.
  22. محمودی، وحید و قاسم صمیمی‌فر، 1384، فقر قابلیتی، فصلنامة رفاه اجتماعی، دورة پنجم، شمارة 17، صص 10-47.
23. Ali Madadi, M. S., 2009, the Measurement of Multidimensional Indicators of Poverty in Iran During 2004-2006, M. A Thesis on Economics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran. (In Persian)

24. Alkire, S., and Santos, M. E., 2010, Acute Multidimensional Poverty: A New Index for Developing Countries, United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report Office Background Paper, (2010/11).

25. Alkire, S., and Santos, M. E., 2014, Measuring Acute Poverty in the Developing World: Robustness and Scope of the Multidimensional Poverty Index, World Development, No. 59, PP. 251-274.

26. Alkire, S., and Seth, S., 2015, Multidimensional Poverty Reduction in India Between 1999 and 2006: Where and How? World Development, No. 72, PP. 93-108.

27. Alkire, S., 2007, Choosing Dimensions: the Capability Approach and Multidimensional Poverty (In the Many Dimensions of Poverty), Palgrave Macmillan UK, PP. 89-119.

28. Angulo, R., Díaz, Y., and Pardo, R., 2016, The Colombian Multidimensional Poverty Index: Measuring Poverty in a Public Policy Context, Social Indicators Research, Vol. 127, No. 1, PP. 1-38.

29. Arshadi, A., and Karimi, A., 2013, Study of Poverty in Rural and Urban Areas in Iran During Five-Year Development Plan, Journal of the Macro and Strategic Policies, Vol. 1, No. 1, PP. 23-42. (In Persian)

  1. 30.  Biggeri, M., Trani, J. F., and Mauro, V., 2010, the Multidimensionality of Child Poverty: An Empirical Investigation On Children of Afghanistan, OPHI Research in Progress, 19.
31. Bosshagh, M. R., Taghdisi, A., and Taghvaie, M., 2015, A Model for Explaining the Poverty in Rural Areas (Case Study: Chaharmahal Bakhtiari Province), Journal of Research and Rural Planning, Vol. 4, No. 3, PP. 115-126. (In Persian)

32. Cimren, E., Catay, B., and Budak, E., 2007, Development of a Machine Tool Selection System Using AHP, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 35, No. 3, PP. 363-376.

33. Derakhshan, H. R., and Yeganloo, A., 2014, Multidimensional Poverty Index in Iran (Explaining Indicators and Its Estimation Based on Provinces), Research Institute of Economic Strategies Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)

34. Eftekhari, F., Karami, A., and Nooripoor, M., 2012, Study of Poverty Situation in Rural Areas of Kohgilouyeh Va Boyerahmad Province, Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 6, No, 1, PP. 179-204. (In Persian)

35. Eftekharian, P., and Salimifar, M., 2014, A Study on the Status of Poverty in Urban Areas of Kerman Province in Comparison with the Whole Country, Journal of Economics Research, Vol. 14, No. 54, PP. 213-238. (In Persian)

36. Esfandiyarpoor, M., 2015, Multidimensional Poverty Measurement in Iran: 2009-2013 (Alkire-Foster Approach), M.A Thesis on Economics, Alzahra University. (In Persian)

37. Fardanesh, F., 1998, Urban Poverty - Rural Poverty, Journal of Housing and Rural Environment, No. 83, PP. 17-24. (In Persian)

38. Fetros, M. H., and Ghodsi, S., 2014, Alkire and Foster's Method for Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty, Economic Journal, No. 11-12, PP. 77-92. (In Persian)

39. Ghafari, Gh. R., and Haghparast, A., 2004, Indicators of Poverty in Rural Areas, Journal of Sociology of Iran, Vol. 5, No. 4. PP. 32-48. (In Persian)

40. Hassan Khan, M., 2002, Rural Poverty in Developing Countries (Requirements for Public Policy), Translated by: Sharif Zadeh, A., and Habibpoor, K., Journal of Political and Economic Ettelaat, No. 177 and 178, PP. 264-269. (In Persian)

41. IFAD, 2011, Rural Poverty Report, Published in the website: www.ifad.org/documents/10180/c47f2607-3fb9-4736-8e6a-a7ccf3dc7c5b.

42. IFAD, 2012, Enabling Poor Rural People to Overcome Poverty, Annual Report, Published in the website: www.ifad.org/documents/10180/e23f4eee-314a-4243-baff-8b39750894d5.

43. Isna News Agency, 2018, Hamadan's Marginalization Caused by Migrating Villagers to the City, News Code: 96112313212, retrieved 2018, february, 20, from https://www.isna.ir/news/96112313212/90. (In Persian)

44. Khalaj, S., and Yousefi, A., 2015, Mapping the Incidence and Intensity of Multidimensional Poverty in Iran Urban and Rural Areas, Journal of Spatial Planning, Vol. 18, No, 4. PP. 49-70. (In Persian)

45. Khaledi, K., and Permeh, P., 2005, Assessment of Poverty Situation in Urban and Rural Areas of Iran, Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, Vol. 13, No. 49. PP. 57-82. (In Persian)

46. Khodadad Kashi, F., and Soleyman Nejad, A. A., 2012, Estimation of Poverty Line and Its Changes in Rural Areas of Isfahan Province, Journal of Geographical Researches, Vol. 27, No. 105, PP. 91-114. (In Persian)

47. Mahmoudi, V., and Samimifar, G., 2005, Poverty as Capability Deprevation, Social Welfare, Vol. 5, No. 17, PP. 9-32. (In Persian)

48. Mehr News Agency, 2018, Hamadan Recorded Population Reduction in Iran, News Code: 4117418, retrieved 2018, february, 20, from https://www.mehrnews.com/news/4117418. (In Persian)

49. Mohammadi Yeganeh, B., Cheraghi, M., and Yazdani, Z., 2014, Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Spatial Distribution of Poverty in Rural Areas, by Emphasizing on the Economic-Social Characteristics, Case Study: Mahmoudabad Village, Shahin Dej Town Ship, Journal of Geography and Urban - Regional Planning, Vol. 4, No. 13, PP. 83-96. (In Persian)

50. Mohanty, S. K., Rasul, G., Mahapatra, B., Choudhury, D., Tuladhar, S., and Holmgren, E. V., 2017, Multidimensional Poverty in Mountainous Regions: Shan and Chin in Myanmar, Social Indicators Research, PP. 1-22.

51. Mushongera, D., Zikhali, P., and Ngwenya, P., 2015, A Multidimensional Poverty Index for Gauteng Province, South Africa: Evidence From Quality of Life Survey Data, Social Indicators Research, Vol. 1, No. 130, PP. 277-303.

52. Raghfar, H., and Ebrahimi, Z., 2007, Poverty Measurement in Iran During 1989-2004, Social Welfare, Vol. 6, No. 24, PP. 55-82. (In Persian)

53. Raghfar, H., and Esfandiyarpoor, M., 2015, Multidimensional Poverty Measurement in Iran: 2009-2013 (Alkire-Foster Approach), Vol. 4, No. 13, PP. 201-233. (In Persian)

54. Rojas, M., 2008, Experienced Poverty and Income Poverty in Mexico: A Subjective Well-Being Approach, World Development, Vol. 36, No. 6, PP.1078-1093.

55. Salazar, R. C. A., Díaz, B. Y., and Pinzon, R. P., 2014, A Counting Multidimensional Poverty Index in Public Policy Context: the Case of Colombia, No. Ophiwp062, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.

56. Santos, M. E., Villatoro, P., Mancero, X., and Gerstenfeld, P., 2015, A Multidimensional Poverty Index for Latin America, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) Working Paper, No. 79, PP. 1-47.

57. Sen, A., 2000, A Decade of Human Development, Journal of Human Development, Vol. 1, No. 1, PP. 17-23.

58. Shirvanian, A., and Bakhshoodeh, M., 2012, Investigating Poverty in Rural Iran: The Multidimensional Poverty Approach, Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 5, P. 640.

59. Taghi Chizari. Sh., 2013, Weight Indicators of Multidimensional Poverty, M.A Thesis on Economics, Alzahra University. (In Persian)

60. UNDP, 1997, Human Development Report, New York Green, J and Villanueva, D. (1997), Private Investment in Developing Countries, An Empirical Analysis, IMF Staff Papers.

61. Zandi, E., 2010, The Impact of Employment on Reducing Capability Poverty in Two Departments of Tourism and Hospital Services, M. A Thesis on Management, Allameh Tabataba'i University. (In Persian).