تبیین نقش و کارکرد ژئوپلیتیک خلیج چابهار در تحولات اقیانوس هند (با تأکید بر رقابت‌های میان هند و چین)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی، پژوهشگر دانشگاه جامع امام حسین (ع)

2 استاد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه خوارزمی

3 دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه خوارزمی

4 استادیار جامعه‌شناسی دانشگاه جامع امام حسین (ع)

چکیده

پس از فروپاشی شوروی در سدة بیستم، مناسبات ژئوپلیتیک در مقیاس جهانی سرشتی ژئواکونومیک­محور یافت؛ بدین معنا که کارکرد اقتصادی مکان‌ها به آن‌ها وزن ژئوپلیتیک داد. خلیج چابهار فضای جغرافیایی واجد نقش‌آفرینی ژئوپلیتیک است که در کانون توجه قدرت‌های اقتصادی دنیا قرار گرفته است؛ زیرا دسترسی به پهنه‌های اقیانوس هند را فراهم می‌کند و به‌منزلة محل اتصال فضای درونی و میانی با فضای بزرگ می‌تواند در ساختار نوین اقتصاد سیاسی بین‌الملل و اقتصاد سیاسی تجارت و ترانزیت انرژی در منطقة اقیانوس هند، در شکل‌دهی به سازمان همکاری‌های منطقه‌ای نقشی راهبردی ایفا کند. در این میان، ایران می‌تواند از این ظرفیت برای سامان‌دهی نهادهای منطقه‌ای و بین‌المللی، به‌ویژه در منطقة اقیانوس هند استفاده کند و از این راه منافع کشورهای دیگر را با ساحل دریای عمان پیوند بزند. همچنین می‌تواند علاوه‌بر ارتقای منزلت ژئوپلیتیک خود در جهان و منطقه، با بسترسازی اجماع منطقه‌ای و جهانی، فرصت‌های جدیدی را برای تضمین امنیت ملی خود تولید کند؛ از این‌رو پژوهش حاضر به بررسی و تبیین نقش ژئوپلیتیک خلیج چابهار در رقابت میان دو قدرت هند و چین متمرکز است. روش‌شناسی حاکم بر پژوهش، روشی آمیخته است. پژوهشگر با مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای و مصاحبه‌های اکتشافی، شاخص‌های مدنظر را احصا کرده و ابزار پرسشنامه را برای تأیید روایی و پایایی نتایج مصاحبه‌ها را ساخته است. پس از تجزیه‌ و تحلیل نتایج در محیط نرم‌افزاری SPSS، مشخص شد ژئوپلیتیک خلیج چابهار با اطمینان 99 درصد در رقابت میان دو قدرت هند و چین اثرگذار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explaining the Role and Function of Geopolitical the Gulf of Chabahar in Indian Ocean developments (emphasizing India-China competition)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hassan saadati 1
  • yadollah karimipour 2
  • morad kavianirad 3
  • ahmad kargar 4
1 Kharazmi University - Political Geography Department
2 Kharazmi University - Political Geography Department
3 Kharazmi University - Political Geography Department
4 imamhossein University - social Sciences Department
چکیده [English]

Introduction
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, geopolitical relations centered on the geopolitical world scale, which means that the economic function of the places gives them geopolitical weight. Iran can use this capacity to organize. Regional and international institutions, particularly in the Indian Ocean region, thereby linking the interests of other countries with the Oman coast and, in addition to promoting its geopolitical status in the world and the region, by establishing a regional and global consensus, provide new opportunities for security And the Gulf of Chabahar, as the interconnecting space between the inner and outer space, can play a strategic role in the modern political economy of the international economy and the political economy of trade and transit of energy in the Indian Ocean region towards India and China plays a strategic role in shaping a regional cooperation organization.

Methodology
The methodology governing the research is a mixed method. Through library studies and conducting exploratory interviews, the indicators have been considered and the questionnaire has been developed to verify the validity and reliability of the interviews.

Results and discussion
The present study was conducted as a correlation research to explore the geopolitical influences of Chabahar Gulf on Indian Ocean developments, especially the rivalries between India and China. In the theoretical part of the research, the researcher examined and analyzed the various theories among political actors and selected the theories that could be used as the basis for the study and the conceptual framework of the research was based on it. Finally, a hybrid model was developed and It was used as a theoretical framework for research. Regarding the gender of the research method, first, a spectrum of elites and scholars in the Indian Ocean region was identified and conducted a deep and explicit interview. In the next step, after implementing and analyzing the results of the interviews, relevant indicators and concepts, the studied axis, the questionnaire was designed to assess the validity and reliability of the interviews. The questionnaires were compiled based on the indexes and distributed among the two spectrum of experts in the field of operations. Information collected through spss software was reviewed.
After analyzing the findings of the analysis, it became clear that the Chabahar Gulf possesses the potential and actual capabilities that the powers of China and India can use in their power relations between competition and cooperation. In fact, the Chabahar Gulf is a coin that plays a role on the one hand of the coin (geospatial) and on the other, the competition and the conflict (geopolitics). Iran and other political actors, by adopting a geo-economic approach, will be able to forgive the developments in the Indian Ocean by sharing interests in the Chabahar Gulf. Therefore, two windows are open to Iran and other actors: the geopolitical window and the geo-spacTherefore, the Indian Ocean can be considered as a geopolitical region in which various local and global actors play a role in acquiring power resources, among which two main actors in this area are the cast of India and China, which are as active characters in the region And each attempt to turn to the hegemony of the Indian Ocean region dictates the requirements for the foreign policy instrument and the diplomacy of the two countries, India and China, which continues the geopolitical rivalry of both Indian and Chinese actors to adopt an effective and practical political and political strategy. In order to achieve its own benefits, it is unacceptable and deprived are off the opposite side. Therefore, politics and relations between powers and political actors have always been a rivalry and an endless struggle for gaining, preserving and upgrading power, because geographic spaces do not have the ability to meet all the needs of actors, and the principle of scarcity rests on such spatial domains And, accordingly, power is considered as the ultimate goal because of its fundamental role in providing other purposes. In other words, all human values and their realization depend on an element in the name of power, and this has dominated political life from the outset, because gaining power is equal to the survival, security and realization of the values that an actor seeks to bring to the cast India and China are no exception. But if we look out of the geo-economics window, we will encounter a geographic space in which actors with a positive perspective seek to gain in the shadow of collaboration with other actors; in other words, the logic of the non-zero algebraic summation is replaced by the logic of zero algebraic summation And actors will step in the direction of geopacific. So If you look at the geospatial and geospatial windows in the Indian Ocean, you will find a favorable atmosphere for the beginning of cooperation and convergence with the powers of China and India as well as other actors who can take this opportunity to increase their weight and improve their position in the first step and other Actors to use. In this regard, suggestions from research in three sections, economic, political and military-security, and three national, regional and international scales have been presented to enhance the role of the Chabahar Gulf in the Indian Ocean.

Conclusion
The result of the analysis showed that there is a significant relationship between the geopolitics of the Chabahar Gulf and the Indian Ocean and the Indian-Chinese rivalry in the alpha level of P = 0/00. As a result, there is a correlation between the two variables and it can be assured with 0.99% that each of the geopolitical capacities and capabilities of the Chabahar Gulf is properly used, the ratio of the Indian Ocean's ocean's role, especially the India-China rivalries, will increase. . It was inferred from the answers to the questionnaire that 82% of experts and experts believe that the geopolitics of the Chabahar Gulf has a great impact on Indian Ocean developments, especially between India and China.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Geopolitics
  • Geoeconomics
  • Chabahar
  • China
  • India
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