عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Today Livability is an Introduction to Sustainable Development so much attention has been paid to assessment and evaluation in the field of planning and policy for rural settlements. Livability includes various dimensions such as environmental, socio-cultural, economic, institutional-management and physical that will evaluate and improve each dimension for achieving a livable habitat. The goal of this research is explaining environmental livability of villages around the Rasht metropolis. The research type is applied, used method is descriptive-analytical and data are collected using documentary resources and field studies. The statistical population of this research is villages around the Rasht metropolis. To assess environmental livability, recognized 5 components including green space, pollution(environmental quality), visual quality, landscape and rural perspective and resilient(28 items) that required information gathered by getting help of villagers, rural managers and identify the scope of study.
Methodology: In this study Dehyars and supervisors of households living (using random sampling) selected as responsive to questionnaires which is designed. To assess the validity of the questionnaire, previous studies and the approval of experts in the field of rural studies and to assess the reliability of questionnaires Cronbach's alpha method were used.The result(0.731) shows the reliability of the questionnaire to conduct the research. After ensuring the results of the questionnaire, it has been designed to collect information and analyze descriptive statistics and then for inferential statistics try to create index. For this purpose, items first were rounded and then negative items was changed to positive ones, because we need same value indicators to measure in order to make correct comparison. In order to convert negatives items to positive ones, they must be reduced to a constant number or reversed. In this study, the inverse method was used. To complete the indexation process should fix scale differences for getting the numeric information. For this purpose we Use standardize method and then weigh the indicators. To assess the weight has used judgments opinion method. A questionnaire is filled up for each village with the help of well-known and expert people where it is considered to be one to ten numbers for each component and finally the average weights are obtained and then the numbers are considered in the range of 1-3 Where 3 is the most weight. Finally, the weight is achieved apply in the scaled-up indexes and mean and standard deviation of the indicators will calculate and further research steps these indicators are used to carry out quantitative operations.
Result and discussion: results show ,respectively, the manner and quality of waste collection from the village surface with an average of 3.85, natural beauty eye with an average of 3.78, air pollution (no air pollution is aimed because the score is changed from negative to positive) with an average of 3.36 have the highest average and enjoyment and quality of children's play space with an average of 0.09, having a sewage disposal system with an average of 1.77, the quality of collecting wastewater with an average of 2.10 have the lowest Average. The high average shows the satisfaction of the respondents and the possibility of greater impact on rural viability. To determine the effect of independent variable (environmental dimension) on dependent variable (livability) used of bivariate regression (simple linear regression) with the same way method. Test results show that amount of determination coefficient statistics (variance explained by the set of variables) is equal to 0.593 and it means that 59.3 percent of the variation in livability is explained by the environmental dimension and this reflects the impact of this dimension. F statistic is 50.935 which is meaningful up to a thousandth and represents the dependence of the livability on this dimension. In other words, environmental indicators have an impact on livability. In the following, by examining the results of the indexation find that among the studied indicators, resilient index with a score of 9.49 is the highest and green area index with a score of 3.137 is the lowest score. Highest score of livability in the environmental dimension belongs to the Alman village and lowest score has been allocated to the Karchovandan village. And finally are Leveled villages which are studied in five levels including very desirable, desirable, moderate, undesirable and very undesirable.
Conclusion: With the help of field surveys and documentation and by identifying environmental components and items in rural settlements around the Rasht metropolis was found that villagers are satisfied from the type and quality of waste collection from the village surface, beautiful natural eye, non-contamination more than other components and in opposite they are not satisfied from the enjoyment and quality of children's play space, sewage disposal system, collection quality of sewage. After identifying the items and collecting data were taken indicative steps and with the help of a single sample T test identify that indicators can be generalized to the whole society and then with the help of regression analysis the effect of environmental dimension on livability is shown. By using the mean of indexes, resilient index has the most effective benchmark and greenhouse index has the least effective index, Alman village has the highest livability rate and Karchovandan village has the lowest livability scores. In the following, studied villages are ranked at five levels of livability (Based on average score). According to this level, the villages of Talamseshanbe, Alman, Bijarbane at very desirable livability level(6.60-7.17), Kasar, Pirkolachah at desirable livability level(6.04-6.60), Fashtam, Gilpordesar, Pasikhan, Piledarbon, Garfam, Shekarestalkh, Pachkenar at moderate livability(5.47-6.04), Dareposht, Keshalvarzal, Varazgah, Koleshtaleshan, Kheshtmasjed, Balakoyakh, Roknsara, Lachegorab, Shalkoh, Kizhdeh, Bijarpas, Kisarvarzal, Vishkavarzal, Pasvishe, Tazeabad, Siaestalkh, Komakol, Mangode at undesirable livability level(4.91-5.47) and Rodborde, Tarazkoh, Tochipaybast, Karchovandan, Gorabvarzal, Ravajir, Vishkamatir at very undesirable livability level(4.91-5.47) are located.
Keywords: Explanation, Livability, Rural settlements, Environmental livability, Rasht Metropolis.