نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 استادیار جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران
2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران
3 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
One of these areas of the country, where rural women are now the official and reliable workforce in the family and the rural economy, is the border area of Khavemyrabad in Marivan. In this area, due to the remoteness and weakness of the economic structures, the level of quality of life indicators was absolutely poor, which resulting in extensive migrations of villagers to the city of Marivan. But in recent years, implementation of diversification programs such as: the establishment of border markets, the collection of milk from the countryside, which followed by livestock redevelopment, the integration of agricultural land and the cultivation of crops, holding Educational and promotional classes in agriculture and crafts have been actions that directly and indirectly involve rural women in economic activities and have been able to turn them from an inactive workforce into active workforce with income. This study and analysis of the effects of women's participation in economic activities on their vitality level as a variable that plays an important role in satisfying their lives and their staying in rural environments is the main goal of the present research is to gain a comprehensive understanding of the status quo of the subjective well-being and
The present applied research in the regards of method is descriptive - analytical based on comparative method (vitality rate before and after participation in economic activity and among active and inactive women). In order to collect the information in the theoretical part by using documentary resources and in the field sect, by using survey method, observation and distribution the questionnaire have been used. The statistical population of this research is rural women working in Khavemyrabad, which according to the purpose of the research and the views of experts and district development officials in a targeted way among the 30 villages inhabited by this district, 18 villages were selected with employed women and with the identified characteristics of the research. Then, due to the extent of the area, among 18 villages, 50% which were equivalent to 9 villages selected, and then by referring to the villages and coordinating with the villages’ officials, by using a targeted sampling of women with characteristics of the case, research opinion was identified and the questionnaires were distributed among 200 of them.
Discussion and Findings
The averages of the periods before and after each vitality indices of rural women are significant due to participation in economic activities at a significant level of 0.05 and 95% confidence. So that the mean of emotional index variables from undesirable value 2.87 to 3.56, the mean of cognitive index variables from undesirable 2.67 to 3.51 and the average social index variables from 3.15 prior period have increased to satisfactory level 3.58 in the period after women's participation in activity economic growth. In total, the desirable amount of T statistics at a significant level of 0.05 and an increase of 0.65 from an undesirable amount of 2.89 in the previous period to a satisfactory level of 3.55 in the subsequent period show that with 95 percent confidence, the presence of rural women in economic activities has increased their level of vitality. Then, the independent t-test was used to measure the difference in vitality of rural women with economic activity with passive women. By considering the significance of the amount of statistical T calculated at the alpha level of 0.05, with 95% confidence, the difference in vitality level of these two groups was accepted and according to the obtained means, it can be seen that the vitality of active women is in the rural economy with a satisfactory average of 3.55 versus an unfavorable average of 2.96 inactive women. In order to determine the factors affecting the vitality of rural women, linear regression test was used and dependent variables were introduced. The final results showed that among the variables considered, the calculated significance amount which was less than the significance level of 0.05, the income level variables, the number of women employed in the village and the duration of participation in the economic activities are variables that explain the vitality of rural women and have a meaningful, positive and direct, relationship with the level of rural women’s vitality. By considering the beta value and the calculated T statistic, this is the amount of income variable that has the most explicit role among the variables affecting the vitality of rural women.
Sustainability and survival of the rural population depends on their presence in fruitful economic activity, and the economy is the mainstay of creating a vibrant and lively environment in villages, especially deprived and borderline villages, as in the case study, due to the lack of development benefits in centralized planning,the major effort is to survive. As discussed in the theoretical part of the research, the achievement of economic and income benefits among all classes and societies does not have a direct and absolute relationship with their vitality and subjective well-being. But, in poor communities, as in rural areas, and especially in the context of women's discrimination, in the early stages of development, there is a pressing and indisputable need for job creation and income, and the presence of villagers in profitable economic activities, and at this stage, there is a direct relationship between the quality of presence and participation in economic activities and its benefits with the vitality of the villagers. Finally, according to the results, it can be said that at the national level, in the rural development planning system of the country, we have to move towards the creation of diversity in the rural economy, and in this regard, the activities and jobs that are being created should also involve directly the presence of women. To this end, along with economic profitability and livelihoods of villagers, the vitality of rural women has also come to the fore in the pursuit of other goals such as achieving gender equality Which has been introduced as one of the main goals of sustainable rural development. In fact, women's multiple roles in the formulation of laws and policies should be recognized.
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