عنوان مقاله [English]
In recent decades, cities in developing countries have witnessed the formation of a disrupted urbanization in developing countries, which, according to Charles Abrams, are marginalized, and in the urban cycle of " Social Gate Keepers". Informal settlements, as a striking feature of urban poverty and spatial inequality, have created a critical focus on sustainable human development, and it seems that all human groups in it are in multi-faceted poverty conditions, but Complications and injuries caused by informal settlements are more noticeable in children and women. Concerns about the inclusion of a group of women in the "poorest poor" group have led to the development of different approaches, including "empowering women." This theory seeks to empower women through the redistribution of power within the family and society. Studies in Ilam's informal settlements indicate the rule of poverty, especially in the women's group. Accordingly, The present paper aims to analyze the relationship between economic factors and empowerment of women in informal settlements of Ilam city. So there are some questions: What are the most important economic factors and how is each of them related to the empowerment of women?
The present research is an applied nature and has used survey as a method. To collect the data, a researcher-made questionnaire was utilized. The research population is women, 18 years of age and older, residing in informal settlements in Ilam selected through random sampling. Based on the Cochran's formula 377 women were selected. The validity of the questionnaire was determined through content validity and its reliability was determined through Cronbach's alpha (0.89). Data were analyzed using SPSS and running Analysis of Variance (F), Pearson correlation test, T-test, and regression analysis. AMOS was used also for the structural equation modeling(SEM).
Results and discussion .
In this research, the impact of economic factors such as access to a job with income, type of job (free, state), income, access to banking facilities such as loans, legal ownership (home, land, cars, bank deposits, gold and jewelry), The power of savings, covered by the supportive institution of empowerment of women. The research data showed that women in terms of ownership of property and assets are at a low level and there is a significant and indirect relationship between the enjoyment of legal ownership rights and the empowerment of women. That is, the higher the level of legal ownership of women, the less women's empowerment and vice versa. In terms of employment, 90% of women in the marginalized areas of Ilam are unemployed and women without employment are very poorly trained. The accountable women who are employed, 8 percent are employed in free and 3.4 percent in government jobs. The empowerment of women employed in the public sector with unemployed and unemployed women has a significant difference, and women working in the public sector have a higher level of ability than unemployed and self-employed women. There is also a direct relationship between women's income and empowerment. Whatever the income of women, their empowerment will increase. There is a direct relationship between access to banking facilities and women's empowerment. The less the access of women to the bank facilities, the less they are empowered. Research data also indicate that 15% of female respondents are covered by a supportive institution. Empowering women who are protected by the institution is more. And in the end, 85% of women have a low back-up power. Women with lower retention power are less likely to empower them. Regarding the regression coefficients of the research variables, among the independent variables, the variable having the legal ownership right with the -0.978 = has the most effect on the women's empowerment variable, after which access to the bank facilities (= 409), the income = 226/0, retention power with = 155/0, protected by the institution with 0.071 =, job type with 0.057 =, and finally, access to a job with income = 0.30 = 0 in the explanation The dependent variable has been affected. In this research, after the data extraction and analysis of their results, a structural equation model was drawn.
Following the revision of the concept of sustainable development, developing countries are now struggling to foster women's participation in the development process, but in suburban neighborhoods, a very low level of women's economic status hinders their social activity and their effective participation. Studies in the informal settlements of Ilam city all indicate the domination of economic deterrent structures for women's groups. The findings of this study showed that economic factors such as access to a job with income, type of job, income, bank facilities, protection of the supporting institution, saving power, and legal ownership of women empowerment have a role. Among these variables, the enjoyment of legal property rights has the greatest impact on the empowerment of women. In terms of ownership of property and property, women are at a low level, and at the time of their enjoyment, they will not increase their decision-making in the individual and family.In terms of employment status, 90% of accountable women are unemployed in the informal settlements of Ilam and 83% are unemployed. 86% of them have limited access to bank facilities. Research data also suggest that only 15% of women are covered by supporting institutions, and, finally, 85% of women have a low retention power. In this paper, structural equation modeling method, one of the new methods for studying causal relationships between variables, was used using AMOS software. In this paper, structural equation analysis of the proposed model was performed. according to the indicators of goodness and fit of the model, the research model has a relatively suitable fit.
Key words: empowerment of women, Economic factors, informal settlements, women in development, Ilam city.