تحلیل فضایی پارک‌ها و فضاهای سبز شهری با استفاده از مدل کوپراس و GIS (مورد مطالعه مناطق 22 شهر تهران)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا

2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری

3 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری تحصیلات تکمیلی پیام نور، تهران

چکیده

همزمان با ورود به دوره جدید شهر و شهرنشینی بر اهمیت فضاهای سبز شهری در ابعاد مختلف اجتماعی و روانی نیز افزوده شده و همچنین به عنوان یکی از مباحث مهم و کاربردی در مجامع و نشست‌های جهانی تبدیل شده است به طوری که هر ساله مساحت زیادی از زمین‌های شهری به این کاربری بسیار مهم اختصاص داده می‌شود. با توجه اهمیت فضاهای سبز شهر در شهرهای امروزی تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی کمی فضاهای سبز شهری در مناطق 22 گانه شهری با استفاده از روش‌های تحلیلی و آماری پرداخته است. نوع تحقیق کاربردی و روش آن توصیفی تحلیلی می‌باشد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها و اطلاعات ابتدا از مدل تحلیلی Copras و سپس از روش‌های خود همبستگی فضایی در محیط نرم‌افزاری Arc Gis بهره گرفته شده است. یافته‌های مدل کوپراس نشان داد که مناطق 12، 3 و 16 به ترتیب با بیشترین امتیاز در جایگاه نخست قرار گرفته‌اند. در مقابل مناطق 20، 14 و 13 نیز با وضعیتی نامناسب‌تر در جایگاه آخر قرار گرفته است. مقدار شاخص موران نیز 142/0 بدست آمده است که با توجه به نزدیکی به منفی یک نشان می‌دهد که نحوه توزیع فضاهای سبز شهری به صورت تصادفی و بدون برنامه‌ریزی قبلی می‌باشد. همچنین نتایج k ریپلی نیز نشان داد فضاهای سبز شهری در سطح مناطق 22 گانه به صورت پراکنده توزیع شده است. با افزایش فاصله بین فضاهای سبز شهری به صورت خوشه‌ای نزدیکتر شده است. بنایراین میتوان گفت که سطوح فضای سبز شهری در مناطق 22 گانه برای سطح محله‌ای بصورت پراکنده می‌باشد ولی در سطوح منطقه‌ای بصورت خوشه‌ای توزیع شده است. در نهایت با بررسی سرانه مناطق 22 گانه با میزان سرانه پیشنهادی طرح توسعه راهبردی شهری که 10 مترمربع بوده است مشخص شد که بیشتر مناطق شهر تهران این میزان سرانه محقق نشده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial Analysis of Parks and Urban Green spaces by using Copras Models and GIS (Case study: 22 regions of Tehran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • hossein nazmfar 1
  • somayeh mohammadi hamidi 2
  • majid akbari 3
1 association professor
2 phd student
3 PhD student in geography and urban planning in University of Postgraduate education Payam Noor, Tehran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Introduction:
Today, the expansion of urbanization along with the increasing population growth and environmental pollution have created difficult conditions for the survival of human life (ostadi and et al., 1396: 329). This development and rapid urbanization of most countries in the world has caused many problems, such as the lack of proper use of all citizens for urban services (Akbari and et al., 1396: 68). The direct consequence of this increase and the over-population density in recent decades is the change in the structure of the urban landscape and natural scenery of the city, followed by a much more tangible need for urban respiration and subsequently increases the air and noise pollution in Cities have been (Yazdani and et al, 1395: 252). Expansion of change in cities has transformed urban respiratory centers, including urban green spaces, into harsh and impenetrable concrete surfaces, which is more serious in Third World countries (Shi, 2002: 18). The present study was conducted to investigate the status of parks and green spaces in 22 areas of Tehran. One of the issues in the city of Tehran is the uneven distribution of green space in different parts of the city, and in some areas, the need for recreational spaces and green spaces and the relative per capita of parks are not paid attention. Population density and the effects of excessive forces on this the texture has destroyed its environmental quality, so that the comfort and psychological security of the people living in these areas has been aggravated. In this regard, this research seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What is the position of the 22 metropolitan areas of Tehran in terms of urban green spaces?
1. How is the spatial pattern of spatial cluster spacing of urban green spaces in the 22nd metropolitan area of Tehran?

Methodology:
In this research, the type of research is applied and its method is descriptive-analytic. Two methods of library and documentary (Statistical Yearbook of Tehran) have been used to collect data. Based on the methodology, the research indicators are extracted from the basics and literature on urban green spaces. The geographic area studied is the metropolis of Tehran and its 22 districts based on the political divisions of 1395. Also, for analyzing data and information, entropy methods, copras multi-criteria decision-making technique, Moran's self-correlation and spatial cluster analysis of multidimensional or k-Ripley function in software ArcGIS Used. Results and discussion:

Conclusion:
With the increase in population, especially in major cities, the importance of urban green spaces has become increasingly important. In our country, most of the big and medium-sized cities have grown without plans, and the standards for urban green spaces and other vital uses of the city have not been fundamentally allocated. The Metropolitan Tehran, as the administrative and political capital of our country, is also facing this problem. Along with other political and planning developments, the city has faced increasing growth in recent years. Maintaining the basic needs of this massive population flood in this city is one of the main concerns of urban authorities. This research was carried out with the aim of studying the spatial distribution of urban green spaces and comparing the 22 areas of Tehran with respect to 20 indicators extracted from the statistical journal and green space site in Tehran. As the findings show, parks and urban green spaces are not distributed regularly and planned in the city area. If the per capita survey of urban green space shows that 19, 20 and 21 regions of Tehran with the per capita level of 33.6, 61.3 and 19 square meters, respectively, have the highest percentage of vegetable space per capita In contrast to the 10 regions with the lowest per capita level of 1.8 and the 7th area with a per capita level of 3.7, and finally the area 8b, the per capita rate is 1.4 in the last place. . According to the approvals, the structural and strategic plan of city development (comprehensive plan of Tehran) for the urban future of Tehran in the green area to develop green spaces with a scale of urban, regional, regional and local action to provide at least 10 square meters per capita green space in Tehran with balanced distribution According to the chart above, it can be said that in most areas of the city this is not achieved and in 10 urban areas per capita green space is less than 10 square meters.. Also, the findings of this study are consistent with the research on the urbanization of urban green spaces (Case Study: Tehran's urban areas), as well as its findings suggest that the average per capita space The green gained for the areas of Tehran in 2009 is 5.9 square meters, which is approximately half the proposed per capita for Tehran (10 square meters) based on its comprehensive plan in 2007. The results of this research showed that the amount of green spaces per square meter in Tehran's 22 districts is not standard and the proposed per capita comprehensive plans in most areas are not realized. Also, the research findings of Hosseini and et al (2012) with the title of studying and analyzing the space of the park and urban green of Shiraz city are also consistent. The results of his research did not show that in addition to the lack of green space in the city of Shiraz, the distribution of green space In the nine regions it was not fair, the findings of this study showed that the distribution of green space in areas of Tehran is not fair.

The results of his research did not show that in addition to the lack of green space in the city of Shiraz, the distribution of green space In the nine regions it was not fair, the findings of this study showed that the distribution of green space in areas of Tehran is not fair.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Green space
  • Copras model
  • spatial correlation analysis
  • k Ripley function
  • TEHRAN

مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 06 آذر 1397
  • تاریخ دریافت: 25 بهمن 1396
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 05 آذر 1397
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 06 آذر 1397