نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری رشتة جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی
2 استاد گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی
3 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، تحصیلات تکمیلی پیام نور، تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, the expansion of urbanization along with the increasing population growth and environmental pollution have created difficult conditions for the survival of human life (ostadi and et al., 1396: 329). This development and rapid urbanization of most countries in the world has caused many problems, such as the lack of proper use of all citizens for urban services (Akbari and et al., 1396: 68). The direct consequence of this increase and the over-population density in recent decades is the change in the structure of the urban landscape and natural scenery of the city, followed by a much more tangible need for urban respiration and subsequently increases the air and noise pollution in Cities have been (Yazdani and et al, 1395: 252). Expansion of change in cities has transformed urban respiratory centers, including urban green spaces, into harsh and impenetrable concrete surfaces, which is more serious in Third World countries (Shi, 2002: 18). The present study was conducted to investigate the status of parks and green spaces in 22 areas of Tehran. One of the issues in the city of Tehran is the uneven distribution of green space in different parts of the city, and in some areas, the need for recreational spaces and green spaces and the relative per capita of parks are not paid attention. Population density and the effects of excessive forces on this the texture has destroyed its environmental quality, so that the comfort and psychological security of the people living in these areas has been aggravated. In this regard, this research seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What is the position of the 22 metropolitan areas of Tehran in terms of urban green spaces?
1. How is the spatial pattern of spatial cluster spacing of urban green spaces in the 22nd metropolitan area of Tehran?
In this research, the type of research is applied and its method is descriptive-analytic. Two methods of library and documentary (Statistical Yearbook of Tehran) have been used to collect data. Based on the methodology, the research indicators are extracted from the basics and literature on urban green spaces. The geographic area studied is the metropolis of Tehran and its 22 districts based on the political divisions of 1395. Also, for analyzing data and information, entropy methods, copras multi-criteria decision-making technique, Moran's self-correlation and spatial cluster analysis of multidimensional or k-Ripley function in software ArcGIS Used. Results and discussion:
With the increase in population, especially in major cities, the importance of urban green spaces has become increasingly important. In our country, most of the big and medium-sized cities have grown without plans, and the standards for urban green spaces and other vital uses of the city have not been fundamentally allocated. The Metropolitan Tehran, as the administrative and political capital of our country, is also facing this problem. Along with other political and planning developments, the city has faced increasing growth in recent years. Maintaining the basic needs of this massive population flood in this city is one of the main concerns of urban authorities. This research was carried out with the aim of studying the spatial distribution of urban green spaces and comparing the 22 areas of Tehran with respect to 20 indicators extracted from the statistical journal and green space site in Tehran. As the findings show, parks and urban green spaces are not distributed regularly and planned in the city area. If the per capita survey of urban green space shows that 19, 20 and 21 regions of Tehran with the per capita level of 33.6, 61.3 and 19 square meters, respectively, have the highest percentage of vegetable space per capita In contrast to the 10 regions with the lowest per capita level of 1.8 and the 7th area with a per capita level of 3.7, and finally the area 8b, the per capita rate is 1.4 in the last place. . According to the approvals, the structural and strategic plan of city development (comprehensive plan of Tehran) for the urban future of Tehran in the green area to develop green spaces with a scale of urban, regional, regional and local action to provide at least 10 square meters per capita green space in Tehran with balanced distribution According to the chart above, it can be said that in most areas of the city this is not achieved and in 10 urban areas per capita green space is less than 10 square meters.. Also, the findings of this study are consistent with the research on the urbanization of urban green spaces (Case Study: Tehran's urban areas), as well as its findings suggest that the average per capita space The green gained for the areas of Tehran in 2009 is 5.9 square meters, which is approximately half the proposed per capita for Tehran (10 square meters) based on its comprehensive plan in 2007. The results of this research showed that the amount of green spaces per square meter in Tehran's 22 districts is not standard and the proposed per capita comprehensive plans in most areas are not realized. Also, the research findings of Hosseini and et al (2012) with the title of studying and analyzing the space of the park and urban green of Shiraz city are also consistent. The results of his research did not show that in addition to the lack of green space in the city of Shiraz, the distribution of green space In the nine regions it was not fair, the findings of this study showed that the distribution of green space in areas of Tehran is not fair.
The results of his research did not show that in addition to the lack of green space in the city of Shiraz, the distribution of green space In the nine regions it was not fair, the findings of this study showed that the distribution of green space in areas of Tehran is not fair.
26. AhadNejad Roosht, M.; Salehi Mishani, H.; Vosoughirad, L. and Romiani, A., 2014, Evaluation and locating urban green spaces Case study: Tehran District No. 11, Journal of Geography and urban-regional affairs, Vol. 4, No. 12, PP. 169-186.
27. Akbari, M.; Sarvar, R.; Sobhani, N. and Mousavi Noor, S. A., 2017, Applying Meta-SWOT Model in Planning and Management of sustainable Development and Protection of Metropolises (Case Study: Southern Area (Buffer Zone) of Tehran Metropolis), Journal of majlis & rahbord, Vol. 24, No. 91, PP. 67-100.
28. Alavi, S. A.; Ghasemi, A. and Ahmadabadi, A., 2012, Evaluation and analysis of per capita urban parks (Case study: Tehran 6th District, Journal of planning And space alignment, Vol. 17, No. 1, PP. 127-150.
29. BigBagayi, B., 2010, Urban Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University of Malekan Publications.
30. Breuste, J.; Schnellinger, J.; Qureshi, S. and Faggi, A., 2013, Urban ecosystem services on the local level: Urban green spaces as providers, Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 3, PP. 209-304.
31. Domiri Ganji, H.; Babaee Kafaki, S.; Metaji, A. and Rashidi, F., 2010, An Investigation and Proposition of the Criteria and Standard for the Development of Urban Green Spaces Development (Case Study of District 12 of Tehran), Journal of Geographic Survey, Vol. 26, No. 3, PP. 25-50.
32. Dunnet, N.; Swanwich, C. and Helen, W., 2002, Improving Urban Parks، Play Areas and Green Spaces, Department of Landscape, University of SheffieldDepartment for Transport, Local Government and the Regions: London، Product Code 02HC000107.
33. Ferghay, M., 2009, A glimpse into the park of Gorgan city, various aspects of urban green space, Golestan Symbol, PP. 86-85.
34. Ghadarmarzi, H.; Kashefi Dost, Sh.; Ghadarmarzi, J. and Kashfi Dost, D., 2016, An Analysis on Spatial Spatial Dispersion Pattern of Green Space and Optimization of Urban Parks Using ANP and Network Analysis Case Study: Piranshahr City, Journal of Geography and Development, Vol. 42, PP. 145-160.
35. Ghorbani, R.; Pourmohammadi, M. R. and Beheshti Roy, M., 2011, An Analysis on the Typhology of Urban Parks in East Azarbayjan Province Using the Granis Analytical Model, Regional Studies and Research, No. 8, PP. 19-38.
36. Gupta, K.; Roy, A.; Luthra, K. and Mahavir, S., 2016, GIS based analysis for assessing the accessibility at hierarchical levels of urban green spaces, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Vol. 18, PP. 198-211.
37. Hao, W.; Lingbo, L.; Yang, Y.; Zhenghong, P., 2018, Evaluation and Planning of Urban Green Space Distribution Based on Mobile Phone Data and Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method, Sustainability, January 2018, PP. 1-11.
38. Horwood, K., 2011, Green Infrastructure: Reconciling Urban Green Space and Regional Economic Development: Lessons Learnt from Experience in England's North-West Region, Local Environment, Vol. 16, PP. 963-975.
39. Hosseini, S. A.; Ahmadi, S. and Visi, R., 2012, Analysis and Analysis of Urban Park and Green Space in Shiraz City, Journal of Urban Ecology Research, Vol. 3, No. 5, PP. 51-70.
40. Joshua, W. R.; Baur, J. F. and Tynonb, E. G., 2013, Attitudes about urban nature parks: A case study of users and nonusers in Portland. Oregon, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 117, PP. 100-111.
41. Kabisch, N.; Strohbach, M.; Haase, D. and Kronenberg, J., 2016, Urban green space availability in European cities, Ecological Indicators, Vol. 70, PP. 586-596.
42. Khadem Al-Husseini, A.; Ghadeghmati, S. and Jamshidi, Z., 2015, Evaluation of Sustainability of Urban Green Spaces in Isfahan's Fifteenth Centers, Journal of Human Resource Research, Vol. 48, No. 4, PP. 761-751.
43. Khakpour, B. A.; KazemiNejad, M.; Asadi, A. and Razavi, M. M., 2015, Analyzing Urban Green Space and Determining the Optimal Location Using the Computational Raster Model (Case: District 3 of Mashhad Municipality), Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 17, No. 2, PP. 117-129.
44. Khumr, G. A.; ShahMoradi, L. and Heydari Tashebbud, A., 2013, Urban Parks Finding Criteria for Promoting Social Environment (Case Study: Yaghoub Litha Park, Zabol Town), Journal of Research & Urban Planning. Vol. 4, No. 12, PP. 117-134.
45. Levent, T. B. and Nijkamp, P., 2004, Urban Green Space Policies: Performance and Success Conditions in European Cities, Preliminary Vision: 44th European Congress of the European Regional Sicence Association, Regions and Fiscal Federalism. Portugal.
46. Li, F.; Wang, R.; Paulussen, J. and Liu, X., 2014, Comprehensive concept planning of urban greening based on ecological principles: a case study in Beijing, China, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 72, No. 4, 15 May 2005, PP. 325-336.
47. Millward, A. and Sabir, S., 2011, Benefits of a forested urban park: What is The value of Allan Gardens to the city of Toronto, Canada?, Landscape and Urban Planing. Vol.100, Issue 3, PP. 177-188.
48. Mohammadzadeh, R., 2011, A Cashback on the Development of Green Spaces Standard Case Study of Iranian Cities, Journal of Geographic Space, Vol. 11, No. 35, PP. 65-88.
49. Mulliner, E., Smallbone, K. and Vida, M., 2013,. An Assessment of Sustainable Housing Affordability Using Multiple Criteria Decision Making Method", Omega the International Journal of Management Science, Vol. 91, No. 2, PP. 250-254.
50. Ostadi, M.; SoltaniFard, H.; Adab, H.; Gholchi Pour, Z. and Pahlavani, A., 2017, Evaluation and ranking of urban areas with emphasis on ecological quality of parks and green spaces by way of topsis (Case study: Tehran Municipality districts), Journal of invirnment studies, Vol. 43, No. 2, PP. 329-347.
51. Poorhammad, A.; Akbari Saraskanrood, M. and Sotoudeh, S., 2009, Management of urban green space in the 9th district of Tehran, Journal of Human Geography Research, Vol. 69, PP. 29-50.
52. Pourahmad, A.; ShadmanRudshati, M.; Hassanpour, S. and Farahani, A., 2015, Urban green space location in the municipality of the 15th metropolitan area of Tehran, in Gis, Journal of Human Geography Research, Vol. 47, No. 1, PP. 33-46.
53. Rabarerose, S.; Okech, R. and George, M. O., 2009, The role of urban parks and socio – economic ،development: case study of kisumu Kenya, No. 31(12)/ August 2009.
54. Razavi, M. H.; Kazemetibar, M.; Asadi, A. and Ajza Shokoohi, M., 2012, Evaluation of urban green space and its location by using fuzzy multi criteria methods (case study of Mashhad 3 Municipality), Journal of Geographic Space, Vol. 15, No. 39, PP. 1-17.
55. Sajjadi, M. and Jafari Tehrani, H., 2014, Urban Green Planning with Sustainable Development Approach, Journal of Architecture and Urban Development, Vol. 2, No. 2, PP. 27-43.
56. Sajjadian, N.; Shojaeian, A.; Alizadeh, H. and Saberi, H., 2015, Fuzzy Analysis of Optimal Spatial Location of Urban Green Space in Mahshahr City, Journal of Geographic Information (Sepehr), Vol. 26, No. 101, PP. 155-167.
57. Server, H.; Kashani Asl, A. and Afzali Groveh, Z., 2015, Assessing the sense of security in urban areas of Kerman using the Coopers model, Journal of Geography of Law Enforcement, Vol. 3, No. 12, PP. 75-102.
58. Shi, L., 2002, Suitability analysis and decision making using GIS, Spatial Modeling.
59. Shi, W., 2008, Landscape Management for Urban Green Space Multifunctionality: A comparative study in Sheffield(UK) and Yuci(China), phd thesis, Department of Landscape University of Sheffield United Kingdom October 2013.
60. Southon, G. E.; Jorgensen, A.; Dunnet, N.; Hoyle, H. and Evans, Karl, L., 2018, Perceived species-richness in urban green spaces: Cues, accuracy and wellbeing impacts, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 172, PP. 1-10.
61. Surodi, M. and Jozzi, S. A., 2016, Study of quality changes in green space in Tehran from 1990 to 2006 (Case study: District 5 of Tehran Municipality), Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 18, (Special Issue No. 3, Urban Design and Management, Serial No. 4, PP. 335-344.
62. Thaiutsa, B.; Ladawan, P.; Roger, K. and Wanchai, A., 2008, Urban green space، street tree and heritage large tree assessment in Bangkok, Thailand, WWW.ScienceDirect.co.
63. Tzoulas, K.; Korpela, K.; Venn, S.; Yli-Pelkonen, V.; KaĨmierczak, A.; Niemela, J. and James, P., 2007, Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using Green Infrastructure: A literature review, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 81, No. 3, PP. 167-178. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.02.001.
64. Van den Berg, M.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Van Poppel, M.; Kemper, H.; Van Mechelen, W. and Maas, J., 2015, Health benefits of green spaces in the living environment: A systematic review of epidemiological studies, Urban For. Urban Green., Vol. 14, PP. 806-816.
65. Yazdani, M. H.; Firoozi Magndeh, I. and Hosseini, S. M., 2016, Investigating the status of the functional radius and coverage of urban parks (Case study: Ardabil city, Journal of Land use planning, Vol. II, PP. 251-277.
66. Zandieh, M.; Hesari, P.; Tina, S. and Mohtasham, A., 2016, Capacity measurement of urban spaces lost by sustainable development approach: Case study: Akhond Qazvin neighborhood, Journal of Geography and urban-regional affairs, Vol. 20, PP. 109-128.
67. Zangi Abadi, A. and Mirzaii, S., 2014, An Analysis of the Inequality of Indicators of Sustainable Development of Urban Green Space (Case Study: Tehran Townships), Journal of Urban Area Studies, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Vol. 1, No. 1, PP. 23-42.
68. Zaninn, M.E. and Santos, E. D. S. and Henke-Oliveira, C. , 2005, Environmental Analysis and Zoning for an Urban Park Management Purpose, Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, Vol. 48, No. 4.
69. Zhang, Y.; Van Dijk, T.; Tang, J. and Van den Berg, A., 2015, Green space attachment and health: A comparative study in two urban neighbourhoods, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 11, PP. 14342-14363.
70. Chiesura, A.,2004,The role of urban parks for the sustainable city, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 68, No. 1, pp. 129-138, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2003.08.003.
71. Ulrich, R. S., 1984, View through a window may influence recovery from surgery,Science, Vol. 224, No. 4647, PP. 420-421.