ارزیابی امکان قرارگیری شاخص دسترسی در میان شاخص های اصلی شکوفایی شهری (مطالعۀ موردی: شهر شیراز)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای شهرسازی، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکدة هنر و معماری، واحد تهران غرب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکدة معماری و شهرسازی، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکدة هنر و معماری، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

ابتکار عمل شکوفایی شهری در سال 2012 توسط سازمان ملل با شش متغیر‏ـ بهره‏وری، پایداری زیست‏محیطی، عدالت و مشارکت اجتماعی، کیفیت زندگی، توسعة زیرساخت، و حکمرانی و قانون‏گذاری شهری‏ـ معرفی شد. از طرف دیگر، مفهوم دسترسی از سوی بیشتر نظریه‏پردازان برنامه‏ریزی شهری به‏صورت یک معیار مهم در ارتقای کیفیت زندگی شهری مطرح شده است. این پژوهش از نوع کاربردی و هدف اصلی آن ارزیابی تأثیرات شاخص دسترسی در بهبود شاخص شکوفایی شهری به‏منظور بهبود و کاراترکردن این شاخص جهانی است. جامعة آماری این پژوهش شامل کلیة شهروندان مناطق یازده‏گانة شهر شیراز است که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران (2007) حجم نمونة موردنیاز 384 نفر تعیین شد. برای اطمینان بیشتر، 10درصد به حجم نمونة مورد نیاز اضافه شد و نهایتاً 421 نفر از شهروندان پرسش‏نامه را تکمیل کردند. برای تحلیل داده‏ها و سنجش شاخص‏های شکوفایی شهری و دسترسی در محدودة مورد مطالعه، از روش تحلیل عاملی تأییدی با استفاده از نرم‏افزارهای مدل‏یابی معادلات ساختاری، نظیر AMOS و LISREL، استفاده شده است. بررسی ارتباط بین شاخص‏های دسترسی با شکوفایی شهری حاکی از آن بود که اغلب شاخص‏های دسترسی رابطه‏ای قوی با شکوفایی شهری دارند و می‏توان شاخص دسترسی را بخشی از سازة شکوفایی مد نظر قرار داد. به عبارت دیگر، شاخص‏ دسترسی بار عاملی قابل قبولی بر روی سازة شکوفایی شهری دارد و موجب بهبود شاخص‏های برازش مدل شکوفایی شهری و درنتیجة آن اثربخشی بیشتر تحلیل‏ها و ارزیابی‏های شکوفایی شهری می‏شود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the possibility of situating accessibility index among urban prosperity main indexes (Case Study of Shiraz City)

نویسندگان [English]

  • hamidreza daneshpour 1
  • Navid Saeidi Rezvani 2
  • MOHAMMADREZA BAZRGAR 3
1 Ph.D Candidate, Department of Urban Planning, College of Art and Architecture, West Tehran branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Prof, Department of Urban Planning, College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Qazvin branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran
3 Assistant Prof, Department of Urban Planning, College of Art and Architecture, Shiraz University, SHiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Prosperity is a vast concept that has been proposed by united nations in 2012 in relation with balanced and harmonic development in an environment with fairness and justice. This concept has been introduced by united nations with six varieties: 1- Efficiency 2- Environmental sustainability 3- Justice and social participation 4- Quality of life 5- Infrastructure development 6- Urban governance and legislation. On the other had the concept of accessibility has been proposed by the majority of urban planning Theorist, as a significant criteria in promoting quality of urban life index. In this research with a descriptive – analytic approach the effects of this index in improvement of urban prosperity index has been explored. The statistical society of this research includes all citizens of 11 regions of Shiraz city that the sample’s volume has been defined 384 people with Cocran formula. For further more certainty, 10 percent has been added to samples’ volume and finally 421 people from citizens filled the questionnaire. For data analysis and measurement of urban prosperity index and accessibility in regions, confirmatory factor analysis method with structural equation modeling softwares such as AMOS, LISREL have been utilized. Exploring urban prosperity models proved that it is possible to consider accessibility indexes as a part of urban prosperity index. Accessibility indexes have an acceptable effect on urban prosperity indexes and caused urban prosperity models’ fitness to improve.
Introduction
One of the new concepts that has been proposed by united nations for a few years is urban prosperity concept which its goal is to contribute innovative urban management methods in order to lead their cities toward future economic, social, political and environmental urban prosperity. This concept which is a combination of proposed methods in recent years is a result of the movement towards sustainable urban development. (UN – Habitat, 2012) After publication of urban prosperity performance innovation and its six proposed factors, united nations have been always engaged with correcting and completing of its indexes and asks governments and planners to act for recognizing local and native factors and promote urban prosperity cycle since not recognizing entire factors related to urban prosperity can decrease its credit and narrative as a measurement for comparing and grading different cities. On the other hand the concept of accessibility has been introduced as one of major factors in urban environment quality. In this case assessment of accessibility index and correcting that can be located as an important index among urban prosperity indexes and cause it to be completed.
The main goal of this research is evaluating the role of accessibility index in promoting urban prosperity index which with its execution smaller goals such as identifying effective factors and indexes of urban prosperity, assessment of urban regions of shiraz city according to urban prosperity and accessibility indexes, giving solutions for correcting urban prosperity and accessibility indexes in regions of shiraz city will be executed.
Methodology
Based on the objectives presented the type of this research is a practical research and according to it’s inherit and method it is a descriptive- analytic research that it is possible to use the results in decision making and planning. In this research for gaining the target goals three methods has been used. 1- Library and documentary study, in order to analyze theoretical texts related to the research subject and effective indexes in urban prosperity and accessibility 2- Field observations, for measuring the study regions 3- Quantitative methods and public questionnaires,
Results and discussion
• indexes, accessibility destination, accessibility geographic points and accessibility method, have a positive and meaningful relation with urban prosperity
• Among accessibility indexes, accessibility destination and accessibility method, have a positive and meaningful relation with efficiency. In other words increase in these features is accompanied with efficiency.
• Among accessibility indexes, accessibility destination, accessibility geographic points and accessibility method have a positive and meaningful relation with infrastructure development. In other words the increase in these features is accompanied with the increase in infrastructure development.
• Among accessibility indexes, accessibility destination and accessibility geographic points have a positive and meaningful relation with quality of life
• Among accessibility indexes, just accessibility geographic points has a positive and meaningful relation with social justice and participation. In other words increase in this feature accompanied with increase in the score of social justice and participation of responders.
• Among accessibility indexes, accessibility destination and accessibility kind have positive relation and accessibility geographic points and accessibility method have negative meaningful relation with urban governance and legislation. In other words with an increase in destination scores and accessibility kind governance scores amount and accessibility kind, urban governance and legislation scores amount increased.
Conclusion
Evaluation of the relation between accessibility indexes as prosperity amount
Evaluating the relations between accessibility and prosperity indexes stated that the majority of accessibility indexes, has a strong relation with urban prosperity. Accessibility destination has a positive and meaningful relation with indexes efficiency, infrastructure development, quality of life and urban governance and legislation. Accessibility geographic points has a positive relation with indexes infrastructure development, quality of life, social justice and participation and has a negative meaningful relation with urban governance and legislation. Accessibility type has a positive relation with efficiency and quality of life and has a negative meaningful relation with relation with environmental sustainability and urban governance and legislation. Accessibility method has a positive relation with efficiency and infrastructure development and a negative meaningful relation with environmental sustainability and urban governance and legislation.
Examining urban prosperity models showed that it is possible to consider accessibility indexes as a part of prosperity structure. Accessibility indexes had an acceptable factor load on urban prosperity structure and caused fitness models of the urban prosperity to improve.

Key words: Urban prosperity, accessibility, Shiraz city, confirmatory factor analysis technique

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban prosperity
  • Accessibility
  • shiraz city
  • Technique
  • Confirmatory Factor Analysis
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