پوتین و الحاق کریمه به روسیه؛ واکاوی ژئوپلیتیکی از اقدام روسیه در الحاق شبه جزیره کریمه

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه علوم سیاسی دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی / دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

بروز بحران اوکراین به عنوان یکی از مهمترین مناقشات قرن بیست‌و‌یکم، روسیه را در مقابل غرب قرار داده و به یکی از بحث برانگیزترین مسائل در عرصه بین‌الملل تبدیل شده است. روی کار آمدن غرب‌گرایان در انتخابات 2004 در اوکراین و اتفاقات متعاقب آن موجب گسترش تنش در روابط غرب و روسیه شد. تشدید این تنش‌ها، باعث شد روسیه نسبت به منافع سنتی خود در اوکراین احساس خطر کند و در پی تشدید بحران، روسیه شبه‌جزیره کریمه را به خود الحاق کرد. الحاق شبه‌جزیره کریمه توسط روسیه با واکنش تند غرب و اروپا مواجه شد و تحریم‌های سخت و گسترده‌ای را علیه روسیه اعمال کردند. این مقاله در پی پاسخ به این پرسش اساسی است که روسیه از الحاق کریمه چه منافعی عایدش می‌شود که حاضر به تحمل تحریم‌های شدید غرب و اروپا شده است؟ و اینکه چه عامل یا عوامل ژئوپلیتیکی باعث تصمیم و حرکت روسیه مبنی بر الحاق شبه جزیره کریمه به این کشور شد و چه اهداف ژئوپلیتیکی را از این تصمیم و اقدام مدنظر داشته است. استدلال اصلی این مقاله آن است که روسیه به دلیل عدم توانایی تثبیت قدرت خود در اوکراین و حفظ منافع حداکثری‌اش و احساس خطری که نسبت به از دست دادن منافعش در این کشور می‌کرد، در راستای حفظ منافع خود در اوکراین، شبه جزیره کریمه را که دارای موقعیت ژئوپلیتیکی منحصر به‌فرد در اوکراین می‌باشد و می‌تواند منافع ژئواستراتژیکی، ژئواکونومیکی و ژئوکالچری مورد نظر روسیه در اوکراین را تا حد قابل توجهی تامین نماید، به خود الحاق کرد. روش پژوهش در این مقاله روش تحلیلی-تبیینی است و با بهره‌گیری از منابع کتابخانه‌ای و اینترنتی و با رویکردی ژئوپلیتیکی و با تلفیق نظریات ژئوپلیتیک سنتی و جدید به بررسی مسئله پژوهش پرداخته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Putin and the annexation of Crimea to Russia; geopolitical analysis of Russia's action in annexation of Crimea peninsula

نویسنده [English]

  • Ehsan Yari
Assistant Prof., Dept. of political sciences, Shiraz University.
چکیده [English]

Putin and the annexation of Crimea to Russia; geopolitical analysis of Russia's action in annexation of Crimea peninsula
Extended abstract
Introduction:
Appearance of the Ukraine crisis as one of the most important controversies of 21 century, has put Russia in front of the west and became to one of the most controversial issues in international arena. Manifestation of west advocators in the election of 2004 in Ukraine and the next events of it conduced to the extension of tension in the relations of west and Russia. The intensification of these tensions brought to the creation of feeling danger in classical interests of Russia and after the exacerbation of crisis, Russia inserted Crimea peninsula to itself. The annexation of Crimea peninsula to Russia faced with a bitter reaction of the west and Europe and they imposed hard and widespread bans against Russia. This article tries to answer this critical question that what interests does Russia gain by the annexation of Crimea to itself which has caused to the endurance of hard bans of the west and Europe and also what geopolitical element or factors caused to Russian's decision and its action about the annexation of Crimea peninsula to this country and what geopolitical aims does it have about this decision and action?
Methodology:
The research method of this article is analytical- explanatory method and it has studied the problem of research by using library and internet resources with a geopolitical approach and by incorporation of classic and modern geopolitical theories.
Results and discussion:
The year of 2014 was the important and controversial year for the Russia. The Ukraine crisis and the annexation of Crimea to Russia converted the relation of the west and Russia to the congelation point. In reality, Ukraine is a club for the confrontation of west and Russia and westerns tries to drag Ukraine in to their block to maintain a strategy of geopolitical oppression on Russia. This matter has caused to Russia's fear about its interests in the western and south western borders. Ukraine because of its geostrategic situation as a buffer situation of Ukraine between the Russia and west (NATO) and supplying the security of Russian's navy and the security of black sea and also because of the Sevastopol Island's location in Crimea has a particular importance for Russia. Putin wants to use Ukraine as a buffer region between itself and Europe (especially NATO). This policy from the age of Stalin was a safe policy. In this time, the annexation of Baltic region to European Union and NATO has caused to the failure of creating secure buffer region of Russia. By repetition of the crisis in Ukraine we can see the fear of Russians and Putin's efforts for maintaining Ukraine as a buffer region to protect the Russia's interests. From the geo economical view, Russia pays attention to the Ukraine's market of energy consumption and also regards this country as a pathway of transferring the Russia's energy to Europe. More than 90 percent of Russia's energy exports to Europe by the path of Ukraine. More than this, Ukraine is one of the important importer of energy especially gas from Russia. Besides these existent energy resources in Ukraine, Russia has noted to other mineral resources such as the resources of Manganese, Iron, Phosphate, Uranium, Titanium, and Granite and … and also agricultural products. From the geo cultural view, culture and identity of the Ukraine people is important for Russia because Ukraine more than being one of the soviet's republics and Kiev which now is a political center of Ukraine, from the past centuries has been a center for Russian dynasties and still between the Russian language is called as metropolises of Russia and has cultural and national interests to Russia. So by regarding to the ethnic and linguistic similarities between the populations of Russia and Ukraine, localism and advocation of Ukraine's Russians is a geocultural ends of the Russia. Moreover, Russia pays attention to the protection of culture extension and Russian values in Ukraine.
Conclusion:
What is scrutinized in this research was researching this problem that what geopolitical element or factors conduced to Russia's movement and decision to annexation of Crimea peninsula to this country and what geopolitical ends does Russia have to make this decision and action; in the other words, what geopolitical interests and values does Russia describe and appoint for itself which by this action has put itself in front of the west and has accepted the consequences of this action such as the bans of west. An answer that was given to this question is that Russia because of disability to confirm its power in Ukraine completely and feeling danger about leaning of Ukraine to west and loosing its interests in this country, for maintaining its minimum interests in Ukraine, will annex Crimea peninsula to itself in order to use the important geopolitical situation of Ukraine and this island in the geo strategic, geo economic and geocultural forms and protect its interests.
Russia after the annexation of Crimea, undergoes the most boisterous bans in financial and economic zones that impose high pressures to Russia's economy; nonetheless, Putin doesn’t accept to condone Ukraine and Crimea because he thinks that his interests depends on the dominance on Crimea. So Putin tried hard to annex Crimea to Russia and despite of European and western bans doesn’t accept to leave Crimea because loosing Crimea is equal to loosing all interests in Ukraine and widely in Europe and its vicinity (black sea, Mediterranean Sea and …) for him. So by regarding to these geopolitical interests that Ukraine has for the Russia, it is unlikely that Russia leaves Crimea unless more important and valuable interests convince it which it is unseemly and impossible.
Key words: Russia, Putin, Crimea peninsula, geopolitics, Ukraine, European Union.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Russia
  • Putin
  • Crimea
  • Geopolitics
  • Ukraine

مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 10 آذر 1397
  • تاریخ دریافت: 09 خرداد 1397
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 10 آذر 1397
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 10 آذر 1397