نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 استادیار گروه مرمت و احیای بناهای تاریخی دانشکدة معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی، قزوین، ایران
2 دانشیار گروه معماری دانشکدۀ معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران مرکزی، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Many scholars acknowledge that Iran is on the verge of global civilization in terms of geographical location. Being in this position has been accompanied by successive attacks by various ethnic groups. The people of this land have always taken the necessary measures to resist the waves of various threats. The creation of habitats and underground cities, that are usually of a hidden nature, and most of the time, under or around the cities or habitats of the ordinary are in danger of being sheltered. The purpose of this research is to investigate the role of threats and geographic location in the formation of underground cities. The research question is the role of geography and defense in shaping the works mentioned in Iran. The descriptive-analytic research methodology, as well as the comparative analysis methods are used for data categorization and analysis. The research hypothesis considers geographic location and defense requirements as the main factors of the emergence of residential spaces and underground cities in Iran, and the results of field research and references to ancient texts also support this. One of the most prominent examples in this case is the underground city of Golestan around Nir of Ardabil. This subterranean city, like the Derinkuyu, is in an environment in which there are several shelters or rocky underground villages around it, and are different in nature with the villages like Meymand and Kandovan, and can only be distinguished from a very close distance.
Creation of habitats in the cliffs hidden and inaccessible along with other underground engineering construction in Iran is so diverse and complex that some have called it "the glow of civilization in the depths of the earth, Beginning. Also, the special geographic location of the land of Iran is such that "the quadrangle of civilization is dubbed. Iran, on the path to civilizations and in the heart of the ancient world, without giving up its originality, had from the beginning of its history, until the end of the day, the ruling of the interlocutor of the East and the. Because of its geographical and historical features, Iran has put it somehow in the four cornerstones of the cultural and civilization of the world.
The descriptive-analytical research methodology, as well as field quality research, has been used in this research. In order to arrive at more precise conclusions, firstly archaeological field surveys and an overview of the presence of specimens were performed at the sites. Collecting data from research samples and comparing them and using a library study, especially in historical sources for concluding, interpreting the data based on analogy and reasoning, is the basis of the research method. The present research, in this field, has a typological look It has a compilation of genotyping and phenotype typing on these works. "Genotype" typology is based on the biological pattern and the rules contained in the space forms and the "phenotype" typology is based on the physical system with variable formats.
Results and discussion
Throughout history, it has always had extensive contacts with different nations of the world, largely influenced by the strategic and strategic position of. As in neighboring Turkey, studying on a subterranean underground city such as Dreinkuyu in Cappadocia has been continuously underway for many years, and dozens of underground cities in this area have been explored and exploited. Anatolia's experiences in this area could be a good example for us. Research shows that there are many similarities in terms of There are species of rocky cliffs and settlements in particular geographic, climatological and geological locations between the studied area and the Cappadocia, and are closer to similar defensive considerations. The creation of underground cities was a kind of defective defenses. Geographical location is one of the main reasons for the emergence of such cities. Because human beings have no justification, But to save lives to create such a laborious task. The hidden nature of these cities and the use of various defensive interests, including hideouts, camouflage, traps and places for food supplies ... all prove this. Location and settlement of underground habitats, including rocky villages, are not even recognizable within a few meters in normal conditions, and underground cities also have hidden entrances. Therefore, Cappadocia was included in the third Persian satrapy in the division established by Darius, but continued to be governed by rulers of its own, none apparently supreme over the whole country and all more or less tributaries of the Great King. Therefore, the similarities and interactions are not expected.
The basis of the formation of these cities is defensive structures. From all sources, to the details, defense considerations are visible and can be distinguished and analyzed Hidden roads, Wells, Diversions, defensive obstacles and etc. The design of underground cities is one of the architectural adventures of the military. The significance of this issue is so much that it is ordered by the Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrians to give Jamshid an underground fortress to preserve the human race. The Golestan underground castle, with its halls, tunnel paths and wells and other biological spaces, can be considered as a true example of Avesta's fort. The field survey of underground cities presents an innovative defense set from ancient times.
The underground habitats, in the vast zones of the geography of the land of Iran, include three general categories, villages rooted in the rocks, rocky fortifications and underground cities. The motive behind the creation of such secret and hidden cities has been to protect them from the sight of the aggressive enemies to protect themselves; the hidden nature of these cities is one of the unknown reasons for them to remain. But they are still being discovered and uncovered, and undoubtedly there are dozens of examples of these cities in Iran's territory, which may be discovered and studied in the future. Underground shelters are not only used in ancient times but also today in the field of defective defense. These collections have a large tourist capacity that requires a decent amount of attention.
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