عنوان مقاله [English]
Elections as a political act reflect a degree of political participation that every society and everyone in the society participates on the basis of their political understanding of the geographic environment to support, reform and change. Citizens' criteria for choosing are effective in the election results. Meanwhile, geographically effective factors in elections, such as place and neighborhood characteristics, are largely overlooked. Some researchers believe that one of the most important predictive factors in the election, especially in tribal cities, is the place and neighborhood characteristics; because these place features, over time, have strengthened segregation and selective behaviors in elections. Thus, urban geography can represent a new interpretation of the social and spatial divisions of the election; for this reason, in this study, the spatial factors that affect the electoral behaviors of citizens are evaluated and analyzed comprehensively, because this method can more clearly reflect the nature of spatial inequality of election participation. The city of Khorramabad faces the issue of the impact of tribal relations in the elections, which has brought about a kind of segregation in the city, dominated by "tribal neighborhoods". This spatial separation has influenced many of the political, economic, social and cultural affairs of the city. The effect of electing based on the emotions and traditions of the society, and tribalism in different periods, on urban management, decisions concerning development and future of Khorramabad is a matter of concern. In this research, we have compared two groups of neighborhoods through taking into account factors such as the effect of tribal neighborhoods and segregation, speciality and education level, campaign and eventually political party in Khorramabad. For this reason, two neighborhoods with tribal interests and tangible segregation were selected and compared with two neighborhoods lacking such a characteristic; to investigate whether the problem of ecological segregation (in the form of tribal neighborhoods) has strengthened the tribalism behavior in Khorramabad council elections? Another question is how the ecological segregation can affect the election issue (especially the election of the Khorramabad city council)?
The present study is an applied and descriptive-analytical research. Two methods of library and field studies have been used to collect data. Data collection tools include: questionnaire, general population and housing census results, related journals and articles. In this regard, after studying theoretical literature, the spatial and non-spatial indices affecting election behavior were extracted and a questionnaire was prepared for the residents of the above_mentioned neighborhoods; the statistical population of the study included all households in Khorramabad. The sample size via Cochran model was determined 383, and the questionnaires, in order to better compare the results, were distributed in at least four samples. Of these four samples, two samples came with stronger tribalism affiliations while two others had less stronger affiliations. In this research, the sampling unit is family. The sample was selected in a multi-stage cluster method. Meanwhile, division method (relative to population) was used in the sampling method. In order to analyze the data by using SPSS software, methods such as multivariate regression, one way ANOVA and T- test independent samples were used.
Results and discussion
The results showed that more than 80% of residents of the two neighborhoods of Poshteh Hussein Abad and Dareh Garm have relatively similar tribal relations. These conditions have identified these neighborhoods as distinct neighborhoods with a degree of segregation. The results of the T-test indicated that the neighborhoods with high segregation (tribal) and non-tribal neighborhoods in most of the studied indicators (party and factional leaning of candidates, the degree of candidate's expertise, ecological segregation (Ethnic-neighborhood affiliation and tribal selection)) were different at 95% confidence level and the pattern of selection of these two groups of neighborhoods' residents was different. Only when it comes to the indicator of the impact of the candidate's campaign in the city, there is no difference between the surveyed neighborhoods. In the sample, the difference in the patterns of elections based on the place of residence is significant in Khorramabad.
The results of one-way ANOVA for comparing the indices affecting the citizens' electoral behaviors in all four neighborhoods showed that, at an error level of 0.05, the importance of two party and specialty indices in Motahari and Shirkhagah for residents is more than the two neighborhoods with high segregation level (Poshteh Hussein Abad and Dareh Garm). Tribal election and segregation with five indices (tribal affiliation, neighborhood maturity, neighborhood selection, social interactions, and neighborhood benefits) in neighborhoods with tribal interests is more than the two other neighborhoods. According to the step-by-step regression analysis, in neighborhoods with tribal affiliations, tribal campaign, neighborhood maturity, neighborhood selection and social interaction indicators were able to predict, in four steps, respectively, selection of tribe. So that these four factors could predict 51% of the tribal selectivity. In the meanwhile, only social interactions have not been able to predict tribal selectivity. It can be said that there is a relationship between the spatial dependencies of the place of residence and the voting pattern in the neighborhoods of Khorramabad. According to the results of this research, the effects of neighborhoods turns out to be effective in the model of elections in Khorramabad and they need to be dealt with more deeply, because these factors have created deep and permanent discrepancies in the election patterns of Khorramabad. However, so far, no previous study has analyzed the relationship between spatial and neighborhoods effects in Khorramabad elections. Based on the results of this study, electoral processes in geographical areas of Khorramabad due to social processes are different. However, the factor of place and the effects of neighborhoods in many neighborhoods of Khorramabad (especially neighborhoods with high segregation rates) have been effective on the formation and strengthening of electoral models of sustainability (in the form of tribal selection) and finally urban management through the effectiveness of the tribal electoral votes on city council elections.