عنوان مقاله [English]
Rabiei, H., Assistant professor of political Geography, Faculty of Geography, Kharazmi University email@example.com.
Mohammad Heivadi, M., PhD Student of political Geography, Faculty of Geography, Kharazmi University Heivady110@yahoo.com.
Mottaghi, A., Associate professor of political Geography, Faculty of Geography, Kharazmi University firstname.lastname@example.org
Amirahmadian, B., Assistant professor of political Geography, Faculty of world Studies, University of Tehran, email@example.com.
Geographical factors have a significant role in states political actions and attempts during the whole history. Each state draws up its strategic goals based on natural features, position and effects of human-made environment to the contrary of neighbors and other strategic places. Russia is one of the places on the earth that its geostrategic and geopolitical issues have been studied. Due to its specific position in the world political geography map and to geographical spreading from lines of the Pacific Ocean to the east of Europe, Russia was one of the states that has revised benefits from geography to being survive and steady. Geography has still an undeniable role in Russia’s strategic. Some important geographical features of Russia include variable climate, numerous neighbors, ethnic and human diversity, adjacency to greater and minor powers of Asian, nearness to Europe, etc. The paper has tried to answer to the question that how does Russia make its strategic react against the neighbors and adjacent regions? Methodology of the paper is descriptive-analytical and has accomplished based on librarian-documentary findings. The findings revealed that from the period of Tsardom of Russia up to now, Russia’s long/short term strategies based on the limits and opportunities that brought about by geography. Therefore, planning to overcome to limits is one of the specific strategy of Russia.
After the defeat of the Swedish kingdom from the tsarist empire, Petersburg's most powerful Russian tsar traveling to the leading European countries in technology, The Russian shipbuilding industry paid attention to the navy in Russia. The navy was in the pursuit of Russia's goals beyond its borders and indeed the country first attention to geography strategies that were then designed to achieve the desired and geographic goals, Led to the formation of geo-strategy in Russia. Russia in subsequent periods with the seizure of neighboring territories, it has culminated in strategic geography and institutionalized it.
This research done by combining descriptive-analytical method and field-based interview method. The information needed for this research is gathered through a library method and by referring to experts and experts. For this purpose the credible library documents will be scrambled and interviewed and interviewed by experts and experts in the Russian region.
Results and discussion
After his great success his successors pursued his political strategy and with his assault on the lands of Central Asia , Caucasian , Eastern Europe and later to the Far East , Russian geostrategic culminated. However, with the overthrow of the tsarist empire and the emergence of Marxists in this country, in a short period the Communists retreated from the previous geographic strategies of the Russian Federation because of their ideology and the slogan of denied nations and the restoration of their captured lands. However, later the communist rulers of Russia based on the political geography of the world and the look of powerful countries to the imperialist interests based on geography-based political strategies returned to their former policies based on strategic geography. These geopolitical strategies derived from geography during the Soviet era under the domination of other lands gave rise to Russian geostrategy. But at the end of the 1990s , Once again strategic geography went to Russia and the policy of Atlanticism was taking place , Which is not too late and gave way to the authoritarian government of Putin , And he also made geostrategy the head of Russia's strategic policy , It also made it an executive. Putin confronts and defies any political strategy of geography that challenges Russia's security and sphere of influence. Russian president to tackle these aggressive rival strategies , Operation Soft and Military Operations that took place in Eastern Europe and the Ukrainian crisis , Georgia , Presence in Syria , Coping with color revolutions , Strategic Alliance with China and the Establishment of Shanghai Organization , Accompanied by Iran in regional and global issues and in dealing with the West are examples of it. Currently these geopolitical strategies are being pursued , And Russia with serious engagement in regional and international conflicts , On the one hand it seeks to achieve its own national interests based on geography-based political strategies , On the other hand the consolidation of the country's global power is based on the principles of geography and its components and influential variables.
Russia is a continental country occupying Eurasia. This factor in the history of Russian life has often interfered in strategic and geographic policies and the resulting strategies. This factor in the history of Russian life has often interfered in strategic and geographic policies and the resulting strategies. The country's geographic strategies originally covered the surrounding territories in Central Asia and the Caucasus as well as Eastern Europe. With its country's strength its geographic influence in addition to its neighbors included other areas close to its territory and even included the world. The country retreated from its history of strategic geographic politics in a short time, But again these strategic policies were based on geographic principles. In the current period according to the West's aggressive hegemony, it continues its geopolitical policy; these policies are used in the form of offensive and defensive actions in the adjacent political areas neighbors and even the transnational areas and in its soft form is operational. Therefore, political strategies based on the principles of geography in the period of Russia's emergence and becoming federated, and from its mediocre history so far, It has often been based on and based on geographic strategies except in the short run. In addition, perhaps no country in the world as much as Russia has used its geopolitical strategies to advance its national interests and interests beyond its borders because of its continental constraints.