عنوان مقاله [English]
Analysis of local management style and its impact on the participation of villagers in rural areas (Case study: rural area of Zarin gol Dehestan)
For successes in now competitive world, utilizing of skills in management is essential. Also effective managers are most important and rare source of every institution/ community that institution/ community’s failure in optimum exploiting of resources could be related to unusable management of that. Thus, attending to importance of managers managing style is to the point that experts believe, if must be happen an effective and sustainable organization change, management culture of the organization should be changed. In rural area as a local community, from the last decades, local managers had a key and important role in rural management. In traditional attitude, local managers guide people based on this view that they are unable for changing themselves and community. In the event that, in new attitude, however managers as leader are known as effective element of community’s changes, rural people could be effective in changing themselves and their community because of having the necessary capabilities, such as the power of the individual, social and economic status. Creating a systematic change of rural communities to collaborate and move in the direction towards progress and excellence, is one of natural results of the rural management leadership effectiveness. Each group in the rural community efforts to collaborate and share their experiences for Rural Development. But in the meantime, for the realization of this goal it’s needed to management of human and natural systems, and facilitate the realization of this collaboration.
This research practical and developed study was conducted using descriptive-analytic methods. Data was collected through the documents library and field studies carried with the help of the questionnaire that designed and implemented based on management styles in form of Likert Spectrum. According to them, the four management styles among managers of Zaringol Dehestan from Aliabad Township and based on Likert scale was measured. After designing the research made questionnaire and its validity confirming by elites and experts, its reliability were examined that based on the Cronbach's alpha, its reliability level is 0.76. Based on Cochran’s formula with the five percent sample error in 9733 population of case study area, 247 householders were selected as sample community that by modifying number of samples in some rural point, increased to 269 Inventory.
The results of index management style analyzing, show that consultative management style is the common and prevailing attitude among most villages of the case study area. Also, there is meaningful direct correlation with moderate-intensity between managerial style and rural people participation. So by increasing the tendency of managers to consultation management style, the participation of villagers in the village and a sense of responsibility in the village rises. For analyzing the five aspects of management style builder including: confidence, motivation, interaction, communication, and decision on the participation had been used of multiple regression. Then adjusted coefficient of determination is equal to 0.74 that respectively, suggested a role of independent variables in explaining the variance of the dependent variable. According to amount of F, independent variable are able to explain the depended variable changes so well. Also, B amount show that among 5 aspect of management style factors, interaction and confidence, had most efficiency on participation attracting and other aspect including to: decision communication and motivation are in next level of importance on participation attracting in rural area.
Conclusion and Recommendation
Management of rural development in Iran has faced to numerous challenges and structural problems from the past decade until now. On the one hand, the traditional management structure in rural areas wasn’t able to solving the problems due to the changing conditions and time circumstances and on the other hand, the new management structure in rural areas based on people's participation and bottom-up planning, for various reasons, including non-native and widespread government intervention and … could not solve today's problems in rural areas. At the same time, management styles through of variant aspects and indicators could help rural people's participation in rural development realization. So, management styles could be categorized to different patterns from expert opinion and based on variables such as the amount of communication, interaction, motivation, interests, change, decision-making and leadership and provide or forecasts different participatory and presence status for stakeholders of development. Today in rural management, despite efforts to establish collaborative structure, low average of some indicators such as interaction, confidence, decision-making and orientation cause to failure of traditional pattern and increasing tendency to participatory management's patterns. In the case study area of research, based on the results, the dominant paradigm of management is advisory management style and regression test results indicate a correlation between management styles and their impact on the participation of villagers in the village and approve this communication. Based on the results also, management style have important effect on attracting and promotion of the participation indicators of villagers. So, by increase in the averages of participative management styles indexes, imperative management decrease and participation had been improved. The results could be taken in line with previous research in this field such as Mirlotfi and Kheirabadi (2009) and Dina (2013) and the others that account management as a lever of influence on improving the performance, participation and organizational development. According to the results, the study offers could be adjusted and presented in the form of the following:
- Using of young and participative managers
- Using of educated managers
- Using of experienced managers
- Training the positive and negative points of different management styles to managers and also the ways of attracting the rural people participation to them before they appointment.
Key words: : style of management, rural management, participation, accountability, rural development, Zaringol rural district.