عنوان مقاله [English]
In developed countries, housing includes an aspect of social well-being, and housing development programs are focused on qualitative improvements. In Iran, housing is a prime necessity, and its provision is consistent with the supply of food and clothing. The demand of housing has two dimensions: qualitative and quantitative. In the quantitative dimension, the need for housing includes recognizing things and stuff that raise the issue of the lack of shelter and accessibility to it. In examining the quantitative dimension of housing, in fact, the amount and degree of responsibility to housing demand, regardless of its quality is considered. Housing Indicators are perhaps the most important tool in house planning. Known indicators: In general, we can categorize housing indices into three main groups: A. Indicators of housing. B. Housing Quality Indicators. C. Economic Indicators of Housing. The housing sector in the city of Urumia is facing a lot of problems, which has caused instability in this area. As some of these problems, the age of a large number of residential units in the city, especially in central neighborhoods; Use of inadequate building materials, Lack of attention to the regional climate situation in the construction of housing, Failure to fully observe the laws and regulations of urban planning in the construction of housing, The lack of optimal distribution of utilities and urban amenities at residential neighborhoods, High dependence on non-renewable energies for heating and cooling of dwellings, And the incorrect disposal of residential units' wastes (sewage and waste). Considering the importance and long history of the housing issues, many research has been done in this area. According to the 2016 statistics of four provinces, Urumia city is the 637th urban areas; therefore, in addition to suffering from class discrimination among economic groups, Urumia metropolitan area is also threated by the spatial discrimination of quantitative and qualitative indicators of housing and urban services.
In the present research, the applied method is quantitative analytical with an applied and objective approach to measure the statistical areas of Urumia metropolitan area for their better management. It is based on library and documentary studies and data and statistics are collected by the Iranian Statistics Center in 2016. The first step in this research is to extract the quantitative, qualitative and socio-demographic variables of the housing, and convert them by percentage and different proportions to indices. We analyzed the moron statistics and the local spatial solidarity (Moran Test). Moran World Coefficient is one of the most important quantitative indicators to measure this situation.
Results and discussion
Results indicate inequity in the distribution of services and quality indicators of housing. Spatial justice in relation to qualitative indicators separately, also shows the difference in the amount of injustice. In the figures in in the statistical domains where the set of factors (down-down) and (top-top) dominate the color, there is a spatial pattern of inequalities, so that it determines that part of the city is completely different from the other. Indicator for all factors that the pamphlet is considered to be the main and effective factor. 41 of the statistical domains, the highest of which are located in the 4th and 2nd regions, are in the top-to-high and 20 of the statistical domains where the highest of these domains are located in regions 1 and 3. The resulting findings Analysis of the data showed that the spatial dispersal pattern of Urmia metropolitan area follows the cluster model. Upper-high of 5/18%, the highest of which is in the 2nd and 4th regions, and 6/7% in the bottom-bottom and 35th / 2% in the bottom-up category and 78% in the top-bottom-up. In general,21/18% of the departments are among the deprived areas of 18/18%,33/53% have an average of 13/18%, and9/57% are fully entitled; and areas 3 and 1,2 are more to be considered than inequalities The results of this study showed that the clusters in the 3rd and 2nd clusters in the regions 1 and 4 tend to be more strongly.
The aim of the study is to study spatial inequalities, propose development strategies for achieving a balance between Urmia’s metropolitan areas For this purpose, descriptive and analytical methods have been used based on the data available in the Center of Statistics of Iran. Having changed them into indices in question, raw data of Excel were entered to SPSS for performing factor analysis, so we achieved 35indices.The eight factors of the factor analysis were obtained, with four factors as the main factor and four The factor is known as a sub-agent and then the factors connected to the GIS environment are analyzed; This situation indicates the class difference and dichotomy in urban space and the difference in having the indexes studied in 1395, and the findings indicate unequal distribution of housing indices Among the citizens of Urmia city.The existence of inequality in living standards among one town's residents is not a new phenomenon cities around the world but in countries less developed like Iran the spatial variation of the cities has intensified due to the more pronounced socio-economic differences, therefore, the weakness and inefficiency of urban management and planning in the provision of good urban services have also created the cause of injustice in access to various urban services. Urumia city has been having an accelerated and ungovernable growth during the last recent years and have seen a considerable changes on its body and population due to its natural population growth, immigration, service expansion, headquarters center, socio-economic changes etc. With this rapid increase in the Urumia population, there was an atmosphere of inequality in the city, so knowing of this inequality seems essential to balance and in order to shape properly and also proper and justice based planning on sustainable development.