تبیین تمایزات حریم‌خواهی ساکنان در مسکن بومی چهار پهنه اقلیمی ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس‏ ارشد معماری اسلامی، دانشگاه بین‎المللی امام رضا(ع)، خراسان رضوی

2 استادیار دانشکدة معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران

چکیده

طب کهن نیاز‏های جسمی و خلقی انسان در اقلیم‏های مختلف را براساس مزاج غالب مناطق متفاوت می‏داند. معماری در صدد ایجاد ساختمانی پاسخ‏گو به نیازهای آسایشی و فرهنگی منطبق با مزاج در خانه اقلیم‏های مختلف است. نیاز حریم و سلسله‏مراتب فضای زیست و تأکید بر قلمرو و شیوة تعامل اجتماعی یکی از همین ابعاد فرهنگی و روانی است. مطالعات قدیم و جدید آن را تحت اثر مزاج منطقه تا حدودی متفاوت دانسته‏اند. این پژوهش، با بررسی پیکره‏بندی حریم فضایی خانه‏ها در چهار اقلیم، تفاوت‏های مزاجی حریم با راهکارهای آن را می‏یابد. روش پژوهش موردی با راهبرد ترکیبی (روش‏های توصیفی-تحلیلی در گونه‏شناسی،‏ استدلال منطقی، تفسیر داده‏ها با مبانی مزاج، و شخصیت‏شناسی) و تعمیم داده‏هاست. مطالعةاسناد معماری، با انتخاب شهرهای مبنا(با مقایسة دما، رطوبت نسبی در نمودار بیوکلماتیک انسانی، و ضریب خشکی دومارتن)،تفاوت‏های معناداری را در درصد مساحت‏ فضای بسته تا باز و خصوصی تا عمومی خانه‏های چهار اقلیم نشان داد. تفاوت‏های کالبدی براساس روان‏شناسی و طب سنتی و جدید تفسیر شد. نتایج با حریم‏خواهی[1]خانه‏های اقلیم‏ چهارگانة ایران از درجة 1 اقلیم گرم-خشک تا درجة 4(کم‏حریم‏ترین) اقلیم سرد-مرطوب درجه‏بندی شد. شاخصة فرهنگی-کالبدی(سیالیت و شفافیت زیاد فضایی اقلیم سرد و مرطوب در مقابل درون‏گرایی اقلیم گرم-خشک) قابل توجه بود. پروفیل حریمی ساکنان خانه‏های چهار اقلیم براساس امنیت مطلوبشان رسم شد. دانش جغرافیای حریم انسانی به معماران برای تعبیة کالبدی همسو با نیاز حریمی ساکنان کمک می‏کند.



[1]. ویژگی حریم‏خواهی معادل میزان تمایل افراد به داشتن حریم در مواجهه با دیگران و فضاهای کالبدی درنظر گرفته شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explaining The acceptable privacy differences of the habitants in the Iranian quadruple climates vernacular houses

نویسندگان [English]

  • fatemeh baradaran heravi 1
  • mahdi hamzenejad 2
1 Masters student Islamic Architecture,Imam Reza university,Mashhsd.Iran
2 Assistante professor of Architecture School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science & Technology
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Humans are different in expectations, tendencies, sensational and physical requirements. Obviously, house is the best place for addressing these personal requirements. Generally, they divided into two main categories: functional and socio-cultural requirements. Functional requirements are included a set of activities and socio-cultural requirements are originated from psychological issues. One of the most important subject of these issues is consideration of privacy. Generally, Humans are social entities. Although, they tend to positive communications with others, they need quiet and intimate atmospheres, which has a suitable territory alongside variety of associations. Accordingly, this atmosphere known as a safe and comfortable place for associated people, because of these privacy requirements are different in variety of Iranian climates. Traditional health and temperament physicians such as Ibn Sina has clearly emphasized on the effective formation of cultural and climatic factors in houses. Ibn Sina mentions that human have different treats and natures based on physical features variation’s. Ultimately, differences in moral and physical characteristics lead humans to different and specific requirement. On of the most significant requirement is privacy. This privacy introduces by Privacy Psycology. Architectures have tried to find the best physical characteristics which able to liability of cultural-privacy requirements. These requirements can be fulfilled by temperament analysis in different climate at houses. In this paper, we are concentrate to recognize relation between diversity of human privacy requirement and we pay special attention to type houses of Iranian climates which privacy accepts to different way. Open-to-close places are considered by features’ houses in four climates. The level of acceptable privacy is graded in theirs. In following, privacy profile of houses drew up regarding on available privacy into these houses. Then, favorable privacy type of inhabitants recognized in four climate houses.
Introduction
Humans tend to different geographic locations who are placed in relevant temperament-personality categories, because they can respond to themselves privacy requirements in their houses. Eisenck divides humans into four groups, including stable and unstable introverted and stable and unstable extroverted and Iranian climate apply to four group which including warm and dry-cold and dry-warm and humid-cold and humid. Human in healthy traditional divide to four temperament category which including Biliary, Melancholy, demos and Swell temperament.
Methodology
This research concentrates on analogy of four climate houses privacy configuration in Iran (warm and dry, cold and dry, warm and humid, and cold and humid climate) with checking 15 number of temperature`s Meteorology Sinopetic Stations, Ralative humidity and De Martonne ratio. The datas arrange by Human Bioclimat figure had shown different feature of climate. A house selected which show the environmental features of climate in each climate category and did evaluation test. According to different personality-temperament categories, the adapted climate is introduced. Then, architectural documentation has been studied. Houses physical categorization was graded which located in four climates. These categories are included measures of open, semi-open and closed space. These spaces are categorized on founded the architectural design spaces applying private-to-public space, mass-to-volume ratio and wall-to-opening ratio. In following, space measurements conveyed to Auto Cad software. The sizes measured and evaluated based on the percentages of space overall surface.
Results and discussion
Traditional houses in four temperament categories are analyzed to regarding the four cultural characteristics including “transparency”, “introversion”, “fluidity” and relative scale of the open-to-closed space. It is possible to compare the physical differences which is mentioned in four climates in Iran, according to variety of habitants physical and personal characteristics. These characteristics (based on theory of Islamic medicine) refer to the personality traits of inhabitants founded on the fourfold diversity of Eisenck . Sequentially, acceptable privacy graded in four Iranian climates with concentration on the span of closed- coverage-to-open-coverage spaces. The first-to-four-level privacy is a sign which refer to the high to low rank of acceptable privacy spectrum. This spectrum can be explored spatial configuration of traditional houses where are located in Iranian climates. At first, the Consistency between the variety of configuration and the spatial organization of these houses can be prove. This consistenc are achieved based on diversity of inhabitants personality features that can be will represent house privacy patterns prominently. Environmental physical characteristics were effected on privacy requirements, after that, acceptable Privacy profile of houses was drawn in Iranian quadruple climates. In fowling way, these houses profiles interpreted based on the variety of human behaviors who placed in relevant personality-temperament category, next, these interpretations conclude to such privacy effective factors in houses. Finally, the level of habitants privacy with variety property of personality-temperament analyzed that can be provided privacy security in themselves houses in conjunction with studying of the level of acceptable privacy spectrum of Iranian four climates traditional estimated. Because of that the environmental impacts on ‘the human-privacy features’, then type of temperament and habitants personality obtained.
Conclusion
The level of houses privacy achieved, considering to the amount of attention to the open-to-close space, measuring the volume of the walls, the amount of attention to the private-to-public space in the four climate houses and …, based on variety of Iranian climates. The first (or high) degree of acceptable privacy is “Hot-Humid climate” houses. The second degree is “Cold-Dry” climate houses. The third degree is “Warm-Humid” climate houses. Ultimately, fourth degree (and most) shallow privacy is “Cold-Humid” climate houses. In the following, inhabitants personality type which are favorable to diversity climate determined by environmental effective factors that are directly sign on the inhabitants acceptable privacy. Respectively, the inhabitants of warm-dry climate are member of the first degree who are the highest privacy spectrum with Biliary(temperament). The second degree are the inhabitants of cold-dry climate with Melancholy(temperament). The third degree are the inhabitants of warm-humid climate with demos(temperament) and the fourth degree are the inhabitants of cold-humid climate with Swell temperament that are low privacy which compare to another category.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: traditional homes
  • Privacy
  • Islamic temperament
  • Personality
  • Climate
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