عنوان مقاله [English]
Review of studies on entrepreneurship ecosystem shows that these studies suffer from some major weaknesses in theoretical and methodological aspects. These problems have led researchers to use the models presented by some researchers and international institutions which usually does not correspond to the regional nature of the research. In this paper, the key elements of entrepreneurship ecosystems and their role have been identified by studying the subject literature and presented a model for solving some problems.
Considering the importance of the ecosystem approach to entrepreneurship, the study of researches carried out in this field shows that these studies suffered from some of the major weaknesses in identifying and employing actors in this ecosystem in scientific research and determining their roles. It's a chocolate bar. Also, these problems have led researchers to use models provided by some researchers and international organizations that in some cases are not related to the geographic - regional nature of the research. Therefore, in this paper, attempts have been made to analyze the studies on the ecosystem of entrepreneurship, identifying key actors of this ecosystem and their role and providing a comprehensive model for solving some of the problems mentioned.
This study is a descriptive study and according to the method of execution, it is a systematic study which is done by the qualitative meta-analysis method. Of the available papers, 70 items that were required were selected and used in the analyzes.
Results and discussion
One of the weaknesses identified is the results of those articles that quantitatively analyze their data. The results of this type of study usually have zero and one approaches (there are none), and have provided an absolute view of the issues discussed. Another weakness identified is the weakness of the systemic approach in presenting the conclusions. In some of these studies, key elements of entrepreneurship ecosystems have been forgotten. Meanwhile, in analyzing information, various components of the ecosystem are considered to be effective. The third weakness is related to the geography studied in the research. In most studies, their geographic scope is limited to the place of business activity. The fourth weakness also relates to the repetition of the results of most researches and the mention of some obvious issues. At the first level, entrepreneurship ecosystems play four distinct identities. These elements include elements of governance, education, society and the geographical environment. Although there are large areas of activity for the government in the ecosystem, its role depends on the development of the economies of different societies. According to the results of the review of the content of articles written in the field of entrepreneurship ecosystem, there are 9 actors in various political, administrative, social, infrastructural and economic sectors of entrepreneurship. The most important element in the Entrepreneurship Ecosystem is the state element, which has the widest activity basin. According to the results, the main role of the government in the field of entrepreneurship and the framework of entrepreneurship ecosystem can be summarized in three major political, legal, economic and cultural-social spheres; other areas of activity of this element depend on many areas of activity Above mentioned. Through political relations, in many cases, resources are also used to develop entrepreneurship beyond the political boundaries of the world. The performance of universities in the fields mentioned is dependent on the organizational culture that governs them and the degree of administrative-administrative independence. In developed countries, universities that have autonomy in their training curriculum and funding have an appropriate entrepreneurial culture and have a higher quality and wider performance in this area. Meanwhile, three major factors affecting students, professors and their cultural environment, especially in the field of knowledge-based entrepreneurship, are the main components of this ecosystem.
Society is the third most active element of the entrepreneurial ecosystem, which entrepreneurs are part of. The results indicate that the activity of this element is heavily dependent on the activity of the two previous elements (government and educational institutions). This issue also differs in developed and developing societies. In this way, in developed societies, the community plays an active role in soft infrastructure such as networking, clustering, and physical infrastructure, such as creating growth centers, as well as in entrepreneurship education. While in developing countries, the role of society is largely in supplying capital and encouraging entrepreneurship and in the limited form of networking. This seems to be related to the extent to which community participation in the formulation and enforcement of laws is in place.
Clusters, institutions and international institutions and networks, in a variety of fields such as networking, creating entrepreneurial opportunities, entrepreneurial education, innovation, the promotion of entrepreneurship culture, investment and activity Legal issues such as patents and trademarks, consulting, participation in creating physical infrastructure, and the right atmosphere for entrepreneurs are active.
The results obtained from the review of the theoretical and methodological framework of the articles in compliance with the principles of the paradigm of entrepreneurship ecosystem show that most of the studies carried out in this area have fundamental defects in terms of the ideological framework and the methodology used. The root of this gap is due to the lack of understanding of the concept of ecosystem by entrepreneurship researchers. Among these theoretical gaps, the boundary between the scope of the Entrepreneurship Ecosystem is within the boundaries of an area or country. The attempt to create an entrepreneurial ecosystem is another theoretical gap that has been studied in this area. Studies that have used qualitative methods for data collection and analysis, usually have the results and nature of their work more consistent with the concept of entrepreneurship ecosystem. Only the attention of one or more actors in collecting and analyzing information makes it possible to consider one or a small group of actors as factors and influencers in the entrepreneurship ecosystem. While all components of the ecosystem are effective in its success or failure.