عنوان مقاله [English]
In road construction, the most basic parameter is to find the shortest path, ideally linking the starting point to the destination with a straight line, since shortening the route significantly reduces the amount or quantity of equipment needed, e.g. the foundations and road asphalt, while cutting the costs of operational procedures like mapping, geology, and soil mechanics. The functionality of roads as one of the infrastructural structures in the development of the national economy does not need more emphasis; nevertheless, developing inappropriately-designed roads will bring a remarkably negative impact on the environment, damage it in some cases. This damage is so great that it undermines the benefits of increased communication and access. The environmental impact of roads on the environment can be attributed to air pollution, noise, surface water, altered patterns, or even the destruction of local communities through displacement. On the other hand, the sensitivity of communication routes in terms of security, both economic and social, doubles the importance of this issue. Hence, it is very necessary to pay special attention to correct and optimal routes when constructing roads. Most roads, constructed via conventional methods, do not have all technical, engineering, economic, and environmental considerations and standards, resulting in increased costs of building communication paths as well as the possibility of destroying environment by crossing unauthorized areas.
The present research was descriptive-analytic, first studied in a library with documents on the theoretical frameworks as well as literature on route and routing. This was followed by field observations and surveys, in which the required information was completed. Finally, by integrating the existing maps and the collected information, it was provided in ArcGIS software program. In this regard, the use of modern principles based on the GIS can play a significant role in solving the routing problem. When designing the route via GIS, one can model effective factors such as technical, engineering, economic, and environmental ones and, by performing the required analyzes, determine the optimal choice. In the process of determining the path, the first practical step of the research is to extract information layers. Here, information about the study area, e.g. the existing roads, faults, health centers, and areas of each user's file shape format was prepared and collected on a scale of 1/25000 from the municipality. Among the abovementioned criteria, the desired criterion was the distance from centers and zones.
Results and Discussion
Once the route got designed with GIS, each option had to be evaluated in terms of compliance with environmental characteristics of other paths, so that the one with a lower environmental impact could be selected as the optimal choice. Choosing the optimal route among the planned ones is in fact a kind of multi-criteria decision making, wherein the final goal is to select the optimal route. The criteria for doing so include the road slope, the lay of the land surrounding the road, the type of soil crossing the route, possible intersections of the road with rivers, the type of land cover, and the area of the passageway in the region. Since decision making is about selecting the optimal route, the issue is very important and occurrence of any error might cause irreparable losses. This makes it necessary to adopt reasonable and appropriate methods to find the optimal choice. As such, this research employed Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), introduced by Sahyati in 1980.
Suitable road design and road planning are among the factors that affect the sustainable city development. Not only does it increase the efficiency of the road network, but also it reduces the costs and shortens the paths. Urban roads, in addition to being costly in terms of their design, construction, and maintenance, and having negative environmental impacts, are of a special economic, environmental, and public opinion sensitivity. Therefore, it is necessary for them to have a proper design and comply with required standards in this regard. In order to construct any new road, the first step is to select an optimal route. It is always wise to choose the best route with the minimal costs. In order to determine a path, it is often necessary to evaluate several criteria. Because in the routing process, there are several quantitative and qualitative parameters that are practically independent and mutually interacting, it is necessary to use the multi-criteria evaluation method as a decision support method. In case of the present research, it was GIS whose capabilities in building a database and performing various analyses on it made it possible to interfere with all effective parameters when determining the optimal route. In order to determine the optimal route, twelve criteria, namely geology, police stations, power lines, landslide, residential areas, distance from the road, distance from faults, erosion, elevation, slope, flood, and land use got evaluated . Based on this research, it was found that the designed road passed through less relative obstacles like rivers and urban and rural areas, and avoided all sensitive areas of the environment. As a result, the total cost of gaining different information layers would drop due to observing privacy policies and the reducing adverse environmental effects. Also, with regard to all the tracks, it can be said that the restrictions, especially their distribution, play an important role in determining the route. In other words, the main role and range of the route got limited by these factors, resulting in determination of the shortest distance.
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