واکاوی نقش طرح ‏های ساختاری- راهبردی در تحقق انگاره حکمروایی خوب شهری (مطالعه موردی: منطقه 22 شهر تهران)

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای شهرسازی، دانشکدة معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 استادیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکدة هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز، تبریز، ایران

3 استاد دانشکدة جغرافیا و برنامه ‏ریزی شهری، دانشکدة جغرافیا و برنامه ‏ریزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

تغییر در نگرش به توسعه و فرایند آن برای شهرها از عوامل مهم در پیدایش زمینة تغییر رویکرد در برنامه‏ریزی شهری به سمت استفاده از برنامه‏ریزی ساختاری-راهبردی بود. این تغییر نتیجة تحولات سیاسی در جوامع برای استقرار دموکراسی و مشارکت‏پذیری دولت‏ها در ادارة شهرهاست. برنامه‏ریزی ساختاری-راهبردیو حکمروایی به شکل چارچوب مناسبی می‏تواند کمبود دموکراسی موجود مربوط به تصمیم‏گیری مرتبط با مسائل مهم محلی را پر کند که می‏تواند راه مهم دیگری برای ارائةمحتوای جدید به دموکراسی محلی باشد. برنامه‏ریزی ساختاری-راهبردی هم فرایند هم محصولی است که موجبات تأمین بخشی از حکمروایی خوب شهری را مهیا می‏کند. استراتژی توسعة شهری در شهرهای مختلف تابع یک چارچوب واحد نیست؛ ولی حداقل به پنج موضوع مهم شهری توجه دارد: زیست‏پذیری شهر، پایداری زیست‏محیطی، شکل فضایی شهر و زیرساخت‏های آن، منابع مالی، و حکمرانی شهر. استراتژی توسعة شهری بر این فرض مبتنی است که مسیر توسعة شهرها از طریق مداخلات استراتژیک جامعه، بخش خصوصی، و تشکل‏های مدنی در زمان و به شیوة مناسب می‏تواند به شکل شگفت‏انگیزی تغییر یابد. هدف از این پژوهش واکاوی نقش طرح‏های ساختاری- راهبردی در تحقق انگارة حکمروایی خوب شهری با نمونة مطالعاتی منطقة 22 کلان‏شهر تهران است. روش تحقیق کیفی (تحلیل محتوا) است. در این بخش با قاعدة اشباع نظری با 22 نفر مصاحبه ‏شد. ساختار نمونه به شیوة‏ تدریجی با رویکرد گلولة‏ برفی در فرایند تحقیق مشخص شد. نتایج نشان‏دهندة وجود مشکلاتی عمده در ساختار مدیریت و قوانین شهری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the role of structural-strategic plans in the realization of the idea of good urban governance in Tehran's 22 District

نویسندگان [English]

  • mansor azizi 1
  • rasol darskhan 2
  • Mohammad Reza i Pourmohammad 3
1 Deputy Mayor of Mahabad
2 Assistant Professor of Urban Planning, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Tabriz Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
3 University of Tabriz
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The change in attitude towards development and its process for cities was one of the important factors in the emergence of the urban planning approach towards the use of structural-strategic planning. This change is the result of political developments in societies for the establishment of democracy and the participation of governments in the administration of cities. The overarching goal of the strategic plan process is to create a multilateral development framework with broad stakeholder support to improve urban governance as well as to use resources for sustainable and equitable economic growth, sustainable poverty reduction and improved urban environments. Structural-strategic planning and governance in the form of an appropriate framework can fill the lack of existing democracy in decision-making related to important local issues, which can be another important way of delivering new content to local democracy. Structural-strategic planning is both a process and a product that provides part of good urban governance Urban development strategy in different cities is not subject to a single framework but focuses on at least five important urban issues: city sustainability, environmental sustainability, spatial form The city and its infrastructure, resources and governance. The strategy of urban development is based on the assumption that the path of urban development through the strategic interventions of the community, the private sector and civil society organizations can be dramatically changed in a timely and appropriate manner. The purpose of this research is to analyze the role of structural-strategic plans in the realization of the concept of good urban governance with the study sample of district 22 of Tehran metropolis..
Methodology
The present study is an applied one in the qualitative research group. We will use the library survey method to explain the components of the concept of good urban governance and strategic-structural plans. Given the multitude of public and private and public institutions involved (directly and indirectly) in the strategic-structural plan (from preparation to implementation), studying them all is impossible and impractical. Therefore, the present study first focuses on three important organizations (design consulting firms, municipalities, neighborhood houses). The common feature of all three mentioned entities is their non-governmental nature. The structure of the sample is determined in a gradual manner by a snowball approach in the research process. The theoretical saturation rule will be used to determine the number of participants depending on the criterion of conformity with the method.
Results and discussion
After repeatedly studying and moving back and forth between data and concepts, categories and codes (the final stage of content analysis), the two categories emerged most prominently in data and interviews. These two categories, which are the central or core category of the present study, are at the heart of the other categories as an effective approach to urban governance as a central phenomenon. The reason for choosing these two cases is that all the concepts and categories referred to it in a way that based on the axial phenomenon and axial coding, the components affecting the dominance influenced by the strategic plans at the selective coding stage were extracted.
Conclusion
The results of the research in content analysis section were as follows: Weakness and inexperience in management planning and implementation, lack of communication skills between people and authorities (interactive communication) and inefficiency of supervision system are the categories that are considered factors related to the urban governance of the region. Obstacles to the constituent factors These include the lack of up-to-date laws and guidelines and the lack of ongoing formal law enforcement interactions. The consequence is also management fragmentation and instability.
On the other hand, there are significant changes in area management (through the demand for strategic plans):
• The emergence of strategy-based management and planning in the region
• Change from government to governance in the area management system
• The emergence and development of communication and information networks
• Develop and expand responsibilities tailored to the complex needs of the city's urban management system
• Developing a culture of accountability and transparency in the field of urban management
• Activating grassroots institutions called the Semnis
• Training and culture in participatory management
• Preparing local and local plans based on extensive surveys
The extent to which they are applicable is far from fully operational, but the initiation of the aforementioned statements can be considered a very positive step.
Finally, there is the need to formulate a legal system as needed, with either a positive or negative impact. Sometimes these laws are necessary, but what is more important is the use of law.
The review of the strategic plan of Tehran 22 area shows the significant difference between the executive phase of the project and the previous one, which shows that the traditional structures in urban management are rooted and strengthened due to the profitability of a certain group, lack of serious determination to implement the governance principles in the form of strategic plan, Inaccuracy of governance principles and paradigms for executives and stakeholders, lack of training and sufficient mastery of the principles and concepts of governance and its institutionalization, and such cases need to be examined in further research. The evaluation of the plan included the following important points:
- In spite of the proper status of the strategic plan, in practice this plan as well as its pre-(comprehensive) detailed plans has not been successful in the implementation phase.
- The implementation mechanism in the CDS project area is not fabricated
- Organizational strategies to implement other strategies are not seen in the plan
- The monitoring and monitoring phase in the CDS project has not been prepared for unknown reasons
Compared to previous studies (in the background of research), similar results can be acknowledged; although CDS designs in Iran have sufficient standards, they face obstacles in the implementation phase that can implement and implement all the capacities mentioned in the plan. They don't.

Keywords: Evaluation, Strategic-structural plan,Content Analysis, Good Governance, Realization

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Evaluation
  • Strategic-structural plan
  • Content analysis
  • Good Governance
  • Realization
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