عنوان مقاله [English]
After many years of experience, the world has realized that countries need specialized, motivated human resources to be among the leading countries. Human resources are considered the most important factor, determining and accelerating a country's process of growth and development. Agriculture, industry, and services are of particular importance as they are three main sectors of every country’s economy.
This study tries to identify the factors, affecting human resource (HR) challenges in the agricultural sector of rural areas of Malayer. It also looks for the priorities and actions, necessary to maintain human resources in the agricultural sector of rural areas, achieve sustainable development in the villages as well as the whole country, and supply sustainable food resources and livelihoods. In other words, it seeks to determine the factors, leading to a challenge for the HR of the agricultural sector in rural areas in central district of Malayer. For this purpose, the following hypotheses are formulated:
Economic factors, including lack of employment due to inappropriate policies in rural areas, cause the greatest HR challenge.
Service-related and infrastructural factors affect the HR challenge of the agricultural sector in rural areas of Malayer.
Socio-cultural factors affect the HR challenge of the agricultural sector in rural areas of Malayer.
This study was conducted through a descriptive-analytical method in several stages. The desk-documentary research method was used in the first stage, pertaining to the theoretical part of the research. The data were collected in the second stage, using field methods such as observation, interviews, surveys, and attendance at residential areas. The third stage was related to data analysis and giving suggestions. The statistical population of the study included 73 villages of the central district of Malayer. Due to the large population, one hundred households from 5 villages in the center of the district were selected as the research sample. The main instrument of the research was a researcher-made questionnaire, the validity and reliability of which were confirmed by using the views of a panel of experts, calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and other approved methods. The data got analyzed in SPSS. Thus, considering factors such as administrative political citizenship, distance from the city, population, and cultural differences, five villages of Joozan, Joorab, Aznav, Mehrabad, and Alavi, at the center of rural districts of Malayer, were selected as the sample. The heads of the households under study were the surveyed population in the study. For a more accurate analysis, the number of households was determined using quota sampling from among the households of 5 sample villages, and finally, a survey was conducted, using the simple random sampling method. This part contained descriptive and analytical (inferential) statistics. In the first part, the demographic characteristics as well as the variables related to the research hypotheses were presented in descriptive statistics tables and figures. The analytical statistics part employed Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-sample t-test, Friedman, Kendall's Correlation, Chi-square, and Eta tests. SPSS was also used to analyze the extracted data.
Findings and Discussion
Economic factors such as lack of employment due to inappropriate policies in rural areas have given rise to the greatest challenge in human resources with the highest mean score. This suggests that these factors have been the most important factors to create HR challenges in rural areas in the central district of Malayer, with the next ranks belonging to socio-cultural factors and service-related as well as infrastructural factors, respectively. Moreover, the significance level from the Chi-square statistic in Friedman test indicates that the confirmation error percentage of the significance level of the above test has been significant at 95% confidence interval. It can, therefore, be said that economic factors such as lack of employment due to inappropriate policies at the village level have caused the greatest challenge in human resources. Therefore, the first hypothesis is confirmed and the null hypothesis, rejected.
H2: Service-related and infrastructural factors affect HR challenges in rural areas. The parametric one-sample t-test was used to test the above hypothesis. The significance level obtained from the t-statistic was brlow 0.05, showing that there was a significant difference between the value score (standard limit) and the mean value of the population. Given that the mean of the sample presented in the table stood above the value score (mean difference = 0.14), the effect of service-related and infrastructural factors on the HR challenge of the rural areas was confirmed, thereby confirming the second hypothesis of the research.
In relation to the third hypothesis, the significance level obtained from the t-test was much smaller than 0.05, indicating that there was a significant difference between the value score (standard limit) and the mean value of the population. Moreover, considering that the mean of the sample was higher than the value score (mean difference = 0.445), socio-cultural factors proved to be effective in facing the HR challenges in rural areas, also confirming the third hypothesis.
According to Friedman's test, economic factors such as lack of employment due to inappropriate policies in rural areas have created the greatest challenge in human resources with the mean rank of 2.3. The second and third ranks belong to socio-cultural, service-related and infrastructural factors with the mean ranks of 2.08 and 1.63, respectively.
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