عنوان مقاله [English]
The city is considered a social right, with the role of urban space in production of the daily life rhythm and reproduction of social relations making an approach in citizenship rights, in which the residents must be the main players and beneficiaries in the creation of urban space. Meanwhile, the increasing lifespan of humans and growing elderly population are considerable results of the 21st century. Ageing is a biological process rather than a disease, an important phenomenon that gradually befalls everyone. The phenomenon of aging creates significant changes in all aspects of human societies’ life, including a wide range of age structures, values, and criteria, as well as the creation of social organizations. It is very important to confront the challenges, posed by this phenomenon, and adopt appropriate policies to improve physical, social, and mental status of the elderly. In this regard, by turning the city into an age-friendly space, it seems that Lefebvre ideas could be appropriate criteria for spatial intervention in the cities for the benefit of vulnerable group. Lefebvre’s idea of the right to the city is a powerful response to all cities, especially those wherein the citizens suffer from extreme conflict in different forms (deprivation and depriving groups of people from the right to peace, security, and solidarity). Since the right to the city belongs to all its inhabitants, a study on elderly’s right to the city as a vulnerable group in need of support, doubles its importance.
This research was descriptive-analytical. In the terms of time span, it considered the present circumstances. Following the study of Lefebvre ideas to extract spatial manifestations of the idea of the right to the city as a conceptual model of research, the condition of the elderly resident in the worn-out texture of Zanjan city was investigated. Since the number of elderly residents in the worn-out texture was not clear enough, this study employed the sampling method of the missing statistical population to determine the sample size, which turned out to be 170 individuals. The locative sampling method of the study was clustering, with the clusters getting selected systematically. The studying condition of the elderly resident in the texture was done by SF-36 standard questionnaire with Likert spectral ranking and face-to-face interviews by the researchers. Research indicators got compiled in two parts: independent and dependent variables and contextual variables. The dependent variable included "the right to the city" and the independent ones were the "the right to appropriate use of urban space" and the "the right to participate", both with 3 indicators. The contextual variables also included individual characteristics of the statistical population. To analyze the data, descriptive tables and charts, Kruskal-Wallis test (to investigate the differences between the statistical groups on the subject of the research), and the path analysis test (to study the effect of the indicators of the right to use urban space and the right to participate on the urban right component) were utilized with the help of SPSS software program.
Results and Discussion
The findings showed that the right to the city in the worn-out texture of Zanjan city did not materialize and the average satisfaction of the statistical population from the right to the city index was 2.94, which was below the average. Meanwhile, the right to appropriate use of urban space had a rating of 3.01, with the participation right having a rating of 2.87. Study of the statistical population with Kruskal-Wallis Test showed that the elderly with different physical characteristics did not have a unique understanding of the status of the right to the city index in the worn-out texture of Zanjan. Yet, there was no disagreement between other different groups of gender, socioeconomic status, and length of stay in the city, which added to the importance of the right to the city concept. The study of the right to the city indicators and the effect of each one on urban space with the path analysis test showed that the total effect of the right to appropriate use of urban space component on the right to the city component was 0.827 and the total effect of the component of the right to participate was 0.823. This trend showed that in terms of statistical population, the components of appropriate right to use and right to participate had a favorable impact on the right to the city component and by strengthening these two components, one can create a favorable urban environment in the central worn-out texture of Zanjan and adapt it to the needs of different groups, especially the elderly.
From Lefebvre's view, the right to the city manifests itself as a privileged form of rights. There is no doubt that today the concept of the right to the city is used as an umbrella term for sustainability, with its meaning becoming much wider, compared to what Lefebvre first applied. According to the research findings, the component of the right to participate with a score lower than the right to appropriate use of urban space should be considered and planned first based on the needs for upgrading the urban space production/citizenship right, and then on urban decision making and urban organization. In this way, the group of elderly people who enjoy more leisure time than other members of society can be active and productive members in creating vibrant urban spaces and experience dynamic aging.
The right to appropriate use of urban space should also be considered based on the needs for upgrading the control and ownership of space, physical share, and ultimately urban vitality, in line with the right to participate in order. The reason behind this is that the elderly is a group with mobility limitations who need to adapt to the environment in order to be present in the community and urban spaces.
36. Alizade, K.; Razavi Nejad, M. and Radfar, M., 2013, Investigation of the Role and Participation of People in the Administration of Urban Affairs (Case Study: District 10 of Mashhad Municipality), Urban Planning Studies Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 1, PP. 61-87.
37. Armanshahr Consultant Engineers, 2009, Improvement and renovation design of the worn-out texture of Zanjan city, Vol One.
38. Athari, K., 2011, http://www.isa.org.ir, Studing of Henri Lefebvre viewpoints: the right to the city.
39. Borji, M.; Tarjouman, A.; Otaghi, M.; Salimi, E. and Naseri, Ahmadreza, 2017, Level of health literacy and its related factors in the elderly of Ilam in 2017; Nursing care research center of Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iranian Journal of Nursing, Vol. 30, No. 108, PP. 33-43.
40. Calvo, E. and Williamson, J., 2008, Old-Age Pension Reform and Modernization Pathways: Lessons for China from Latin America, Journal af Aging studies, Vol. 9, No. 6, PP. 74-87.
41. Castells, M., 1980, The Economic Crisis and American Society, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
42. Ebrahimpour, M., 2014, Possible worlds: Henri Lefebvre and the right to the city, Anthropology and culture.
43. Fakhraee, A. and Marzi, R., 2017, Investigating the relationship between citizens participation and the main factors of urban management, Case study: Tehran, Environmental Studies Journal of Haft-e-Hesar, Year 6, No. 21, PP. 17-26.
44. Fawaz, M., 2013, Towards the right to the city in informal settlements, in Samara et.al, Locating Right to the City in the Global South, New York: Routledge.
45. Fenster, T., 2005, Identity Issues and Local Governance: Woman’s Everyday Life in the City, Social Identities.
46. Froghmand Erabi, H. and Karami Fard, L., 2015, Age-Friendly City and Design Criteria for Elderly Social Interaction Centers with Mental Health Approach, Urban Management Publication, No. 39, PP. 7-24.
47. Gottdiener, M., 2011, Basic Concepts in Urban Studies, Translated by Abdolreza Adhami, Tehran: Bahman Borna Press.
48. Greed, H. Clara, 1994, Women and Planning Creating Gender Realities, Routledge, London and New York.
49. Habibi, S. and Amimri, M., 2015, Right to the city, the existing city and the ideal city, what is and what should be, Journal of Anthropology Research, Vol. 5, No. 2, PP. 9-30.
50. Harvey, D. and Meri Field, Andy, 2012, The Right to the city: urban roots of financial crises, Translated by Khosrow Kalantari, Tehran: Mehrvista Press.
51. Harvey, David, 2008, The right to the city, New Left Review.
52. Hayford, A., 1974, The Geography of Women: An Historical Introduction, Antipode, Vol. 6, No. 2, PP. 1-19.
53. Heydari, F. and Zarei, Majid, 2019, The concept of the right to the city and its relation to citizen oriented urban design; Compatibility of comprehensive norms expressing citizenship, with the qualitative characteristics of urban design, Landscape Juornal, Vol. 11, No. 46, PP. 14-23.
54. Heydari, M. T., 2016, Analysis of Livability of Urban Worn-Out Textures (Case Study: Worn-Out Texture of Zanjan Central District), PhD thesis, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Kharazmi University, Supervisor: Ali Shamaee and Farzaneh Sasanpour.
55. Hossein Zade, A. and Fadaee Deh Cheshme, Hamid, 2012, Investigation of effective Social Factors on Citizens Participation in Urban Affairs (Case Study: Shahrekord City), Journal of Urban Sociological Studies, Second Year, No. 5, PP. 59-82.
56. Isin, E., 2000, Introduction: democracy, citizenship and the city. In: Isin E.(ed.), Democracy, citizenship and the global city, PP. 1–21. Routledge, New York.
57. Khodayari Mothagh, S.; Share Puor, M. and Tavallaie, N., 2017, Investigating the Effect of Urban Space Desirability Indicators on the Right to City Realization (Case Study: Babolsar City), Journal of Sociology of Social Institutions, Vol. 4, No. 9, PP. 189-225.
58. Kofman, Eleonore, 1996, Writing on Cities, Oxford, Blackwell Publisher.
59. Kuhn, Annette and Wolpe, An Mari, 1978, Feminism and Materialism Women and mods of Production, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, PP. 1-10.
60. Larimore, Ann, 1978, Humanizing the Writing of Cultural Geography Textbooks, Journal of Geography, No. 77, PP. -183-185
61. Lefebver, H., 1991, The Production of Space, Translated by David Nicholson. Smith, Oxford, Black well, Oxford and Cambridge.
62. Lefebvre, H., 1996, Writing on Cities, Oxford, Blackwell.
63. Lelandais, G., 2013, Citizenship, minorities and the struggle for a right to the city in Istanbul, Citizenship Studies, Vol. 17, No. 6-7, PP. 817-836.
64. Maaroufi, H. and Vahidi Borji, G., 2015, Space and the realization of urban rights: Identification of spatial components arising from urban rights in order to analyze and evaluate the Nawab project in Tehran and Ladfans in Paris, Urban Studies Quarterly, No. 14, PP. 5-14.
65. Mitchel, D., 2003, The Right to the City: Social Justice and the Fight for Public Space. New York: Guilford Press.
66. Momeni, M., 2014, Statistical analysis using SPSS. Tehran: New Book.
67. Nazm Far, H.; Alavi, S.; Sadeghi, N. and Eshghi Chahar Borj, A., 2017, The Feasibility on the realization of Age-friendly City in Iranian Cities Case Study: Bukan city, Urban Studies Quarterly, No. 27, PP. 67-78.
68. Nemati, D and Habib Agha Bakhshi., 2012, Tehran Age-friendly city, the first steps in realizing the aging capital of the world (on the occasion of the year of aging), Social Research Quarterly, No.18, PP. 15-44.
69. Oloumi, Sh., 2007, Healing gardens, online publication of landscape architecture, Time taken: 2008/09/23.
70. Piran, P., 2015, Opening Speech: the right to the city, Journal of haft shahr, Vol. 4, No. 49-50, PP. 8-51.
71. Pourjafar, M. R.; Taghvaee, A. A.; Bemanian, M. R.; Sadeghi, A. R. and Ahmadi, Faryal, 2010, Effective Environmental Aspects of Public Spaces Formation to Achieve Successful Aging with Emphasis on Elderly Preferences of Shiraz. Salmand, Vol. 5, No. 1,PP. 22-34.
72. Purcell, M., 2002, The right to the city and its urban politics of the inhabitant, GeoJournal, Vol. 58, No. 2, PP. 99-108.
73. Purcell, M., 2003, Citizenship and the Right to the Global City: Reimagining the Capitalist World Order, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 27, No. 3, PP. 564-90.
74. Purcell, M., 2013, Possible Worlds: Henri Lefebvre and the Right to the City, Journal of Urban Affairs, No. 36, PP. 141-154.
75. Rafiean, M. and Alvandi Pour, N., 2016, Conceptualization of The Right to The City Thought, In Search of Conceptual Model, Journal of Iran Sociology, Vol. 16, No. 2, PP. 25-47.
76. Rahbari, L. and Share Pour, M., 2014, Sexuality and the Right to the City: Testing the Theory of Lefebvre in Tehran, Journal of Iran Sociology, Vol. 14, No. 1, PP. 116-141.
77. Rahbari, L., 2012, Sensation of security in urban spaces and women's rights, The first scientific conference of women and urban life, Tehran municipality.
78. Sam Aram, E., and Ahmadi Beni, Z., 2007, Investigation of Effective Factors in Elderly Situation Within Their Family, Salmand Juornal, Vol. 2, No. 2, PP. 269-279.
79. Saunders, P., 1989, Social Theory and Urban Question, Routledge: London and New York.
80. Seyed Mirzaee, S., 2007, Considerations about the dimensions of aging by looking at the experience of Japan, Tehran, Human Sciences Journal, No. 53, PP. 201-222.
81. Sharghi, A.; Zarghami, E.; Salehi Koslari, F. and Olfat, M., 2016, Measuring the Status of Global Indicators of the Age-Friendly city in Tehran's Metropolitan (AFC), Journal of Urban and Regional Studies, Vol. 8, No. 28, PP. 1-22.
82. Statistics Center of Iran, 2016, Detailed results of the Public Population and Housing Census, Tehran: Deputy of Strategic Planning and Control.
83. Taghvaee, A.; Azizi, D. and Yazdanian, A., 2015, Investigation of the theory of the right to the city role in the production and reproduction of urban space, Seven City Journal, No. 49-50, PP. 88-98.
84. The World Health Organization., 2003, Dynamic Aging, Translation of Tavakoli Ghouchani, H.; Armat, M. R; with assistance of Khodaei, G. H. and Javad Hosseini, Mashhad: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences and Health Services.
85. Tuncer, M., 2017, Urban Aging and the Right to the City: Experiences of Elderly in Kadikoy, Sociology MA Program, Superviser, Kenan Cayir, Istanbul University.
86. UN-HABITAT, 2008, State of the World’s Cities 2010/2011, Bridging The Urban Divide.
87. WHO, 2012, Ageing and life course, fighting stereotypes [Online]. Available: http://www.who. int/ageing/about/fighting_stereotypes/en/index.html [Accessed 1 July 2013].
88. World Health Organization, 2007, Global Age-Friendly Cities: a guide.
89. Yaghfori, H. and Kashefi Dost, Diman, 2018, Assessment and Evaluation of the Components drived of Right-to-City (Case Study: Piranshahr City), Journal of research and urban planning, Vol. 9, No. 35, PP. 57-68.
90. Yaghfori, H.; Aghaee, V.; Moazeni, M. and Badali, A., 2017, The Role of Management Indicators and Social Capital in Promoting Citizens Participation in Urban Affairs (Case Study: Parsabad Moghan City), Regional Planning Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 27, PP. 133-146.
91. Yaghfori, H.; Hadiani, Z. and Rafean, S., 2014, Investigating Capacity and Potential of Citizens Participation in Urban Affairs, Case Study: Fasa City, Journal of Geography and Development, No. 34, PP. 83-98.
92. Zare Abadi, A. and Gholami, M., 2019, the relationship between the right to the city and the sence of belonging among the over 18 years old citizens of Yazd city, Journal of National Studies, Vol. 20, No. 2, PP. 95-109.
93. Zarghani, S.; Kharazmi, O. and Johari, L., 2014, Evaluation of Age-Friendly city Indicators in City with Emphasis on Cultural-Social Indicators, Journal of Human Geography Researches, Vol. 47, No. 4, PP. 673-688.