عنوان مقاله [English]
Citizenship is seen as an advanced model of "urbanization". According to some experts, urbanites have been promoted to 'citizens' when they respect each other's rights and fulfill their responsibilities to the city and society. Citizenship is a membership that includes a set of rights, duties and obligations, inclusion of an active or inactive individual in the government with specified universal rights, and equality of obligations at a specified level. The concept is a social status, associated with the state with three types of rights, including civil rights, political rights, and social rights. It represents the status granted by law. At the same time, this concept shows that individuals have the right to be credited with their status in society or a political unit. According to this approach, because people share a common life, they also have rights and responsibilities. Therefore, due to the same life together, whether in economic activity or in cultural affairs and in political commitment, they all have ethical obligations to one another. Citizenship is in fact the condition of membership in a political unit (usually the national government) that protects the rights and privileges of those who perform certain duties. Beyond citizenship, its theory is a concept that formalizes the conditions for full participation in a society. The concept of citizenship represents the connecting point between social, cultural, and political geography. Through a broader literature of citizenship, some theories can be found whose definition of the concept share a common ground: a kind of modern social base and role for all members of society, an interconnected set of duties, rights, duties and responsibilities, rights, and obligations. Metaphorical and cultural equality, equal sense of belonging and modern social membership for active participation in society as well as economic, political, social and cultural spheres, just and equitable enjoyment of all society members of social, economic, political, social, and economic benefits and resources, legal and cultural, regardless of class, race, religion and Ethnicity (Sarrafi, 2008: 118-120). The present study tries to present citizenship rights and its challenges in Qazvin as one of the important cities of Iran with different citizens in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, language, literacy, physical health, etc. The main question, therefore, is: What is the relationship between the four dimensions of socio-cultural, economic, environmental, and civil service development with citizenship rights?
The present study used an applied, descriptive, and analytical method. According to the content and nature of the research, data collection entailed both documentary and survey methods. Eighteen professors and experts on the most important concepts of citizenship law were interviewed and the key key concepts about citizenship got categorized into 41 parameters. The questions’ reliability was confirmed by experts and their validity among the sample citizens turned out to be 0.78. The statistical population of the study was 402,748 citizens of Qazvin, according to the latest census of the country. To determine the sample size, Cochran formula with a 5% error coefficient was used and finally 384 people were collected. Questionnaires were distributed in the form of closed-ended questions and Likert scale in five scales, namely completely appropriate, appropriate, average, inappropriate, and completely inappropriate. Afterwards, the average rating of the collected information was obtained. In order to analyze the research findings, the data collected by SPSS software and Pearson and Friedman correlation tests were used for descriptive and inferential analysis of the findings, and finally the distribution of the phenomenon space (case study) was presented.
Results and Discussion
The results of the indicators and criteria, examined in Citizenship Law in Qazvin, showed that among the studied criteria the indicators of employment with high averages were about 4 most satisfied. These indicators are:
• Right to choose a job (average 4.06)
• Right to manage and maintain a job (average 4.10)
• Right to Job Creation Services (average 3.96)
• Right to Occupational Safety (average 4.24)
• Right to family living expenses (average 3.92)
In contrast to the index that achieved the highest average, the indicators of social dimension are in poor condition, with the lowest scores being as follows;
• Right to choose friends, companions and companions (average 2.31)
• Right to higher education, vocational training and school education (average 2.60)
• Right to elementary education, guidance, high school (average 2.38)
• Right to religious and traditional rituals (average 2.47)
• Right to preserve and disseminate traditional rituals (average 2.55)
In relation to the independent variable of the present study (citizenship law), consisted of four dimensions of social, economic, environmental, and physical rights with utilities and services, the most effective and determining the factors that belonged to the social dimension as well as its related criteria. It can be seen as playing a key role in citizens' satisfaction of the city and urban spaces. Based on the Friedman Test, both parameters of employment and occupational safety measures had the highest score. In descriptive statistics with the criterion of average satisfaction of citizenship rights in the field of employment, job security, and freedom, the pertaining to job had proven the right choice. It can also be noted that the facilities and services of the city were among the least effective factors in creating a sense of citizenship in the citizens of the city under study. Also, based on the results of the research, the problems related to the realization of citizenship rights in the study city can be categorized as follows:
The right to access to court and counsel; the right to equal treatment; the right to choose friends, companions, and associates; the right to freedom from unsafe and violent environment; the right to citizenship; the right to personal and family counseling; the right to primary education, counseling, and high school; and the right to having access to utilities and services
28. Macklin, A.,)2014(, Citizenship Revocation, the Privilege to Have Rights and the Production of the Alien, Queen’s LJ, 40:1, 1-54.