تأثیر رقابت منطقه‌ای آمریکا و چین بر معادلات و نظم منطقه‌ای در شرق آسیا

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روابط بین‌الملل دانشگاه گیلان

2 دانشیار گروه علوم سیاسی و روابط بین ‏الملل دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

خیزش چین و ظهور آن به‏عنوان بازیگر تأثیرگذار بین‏المللی به واقعیتی ‏انکارناپذیر در چند دهۀ اخیر تبدیل شده است. این مسئله برای ایالات‏متحده، که خود را تنها هژمون نظام بین‏المللی می‏داند و دارای منافع امنیتی فراوانی در منطقة شرق‏آسیا است، تهدیدی امنیتی محسوب می‏شود. از این‏رو، این مسئله امریکا را بر آن داشته است تا با پیگیری سیاست ائتلاف‏سازی با کشورهای منطقه درصدد پاسخ‏گویی و ایجاد موازنه در برابر قدرت روبه رشد چین برآید. در این راستا، مقالة پیش‏رو به دنبال پاسخ‏گویی به این پرسش اصلی است که رقابت امریکا و چین در شرق‏ آسیا چه تأثیری در معادلات و نظم این منطقه داشته است؟ فرضیۀ پژوهش حاکی از آن است که از آنجا که امریکا خود را تنها قدرت هژمونی جهان فعلی می‏داند، خیزش چین را آشکارا چالش و تهدیدی اساسی برای جایگاه جهانی خود برمی‏شمارد. بنابراین، امریکا با ایجاد روابط گستردۀ امنیتی و نظامی با کشورهای شرق ‏آسیا، در تلاش برای مهار و انزوای پکن برآمده تا از این طریق محاسبات قدرت و ترتیبات امنیتی منطقه را در راستای اهداف و منافع واشنگتن و هم‏پیمانان آن در منطقه شکل بخشد. امضای پیمان دفاعی- امنیتی اخیر بین امریکا و متحدان منطقه‏ای خود، جنگ اقتصادی و افزایش تعرفه‏های تجاری ترامپ علیه پکن، دخالت‏های مستمر در مسائل داخلی چین، برگزاری مستمر مانورهای نظامی در آب‏های مورد مناقشة این کشور و… همگی در این راستا قابل ذکر است. نتیجۀ ملموس این اقدامات امریکا در سال‏های اخیر به کاهش رشد اقتصادی چین از حدود 9درصد به 6درصد منجر شده است. پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و در چارچوب نظریۀ موازنة‏ تهدید شکل می‏گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Impact of the regional competition between the United States and China on regional equations and order in East Asia

نویسندگان [English]

  • hamid dorj 1
  • mohammad ali basiri 2
1 Graduate Student of Political Science University of Isfahan
2 Associate Professor, Department of Political Science and International Relations, University of Isfahan
چکیده [English]

Introduction
China has become an important and influential player in Asia-Pacific in recent years. the economic, political and military development of this country was introduced by an open - door policy in the 1970 s, as this country has become one of the most influential players in the international community. In the meantime, one of the issues that has been and continues to be discussed and discussed for nearly a decade, as is the relationship between the two countries, is the question of modernizing and expanding China's military capabilities. This brings the United States to the fore by pursuing two strategies of containment and accountability, seeking accountability and balance against China. The United States, therefore, has strengthened its ties with China by concluding treaties with India and, on the other hand, has pursued a strategic alliance with Japan, encouraging it to strengthen its military force and play a greater role in the international arena. It is trying to balance its power with China. US security alliances and extensive military relations with countries around China, including Singapore, Vietnam, South Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and so on, can also be assessed. The North Korean missile crisis is also seen as an acute security dilemma in Washington's foreign policy in the East Asia region. In doing so, Pyongyang is reluctant to carry out nuclear tests.
Methodology
The purpose of this study is qualitative and practical. This study also describes, studies, and analyzes what it is; therefore, it is a "descriptive-analytical research" in terms of method of implementation. The information required for this research has also been collected and used through library studies (documents, books, articles and journals, websites, etc.) and searches on the Internet and databases, specialized journals and journals.
Results and discussion
in the past four decades, china has enjoyed the level of an actor in the region, which stands at the level of a powerful global player, and in all major international issues, especially economic, where business and business environment have been affected greatly. in recent years the development process in china has expanded from the economy to other areas. one of the most important areas that has accelerated development and renovation in it is the military domain. The concern of Washington's military strategist and strategist has fueled the efforts of the two countries in the Asia - Pacific region. in order to prevent the influence of chinese influence in the central asian region, the united states try to rely on the region countries by deploying military capability (Jozani Kohan and Jozani Kohan, 1396: 37). Washington is trying to reduce China's role and influence by expanding India's military capability and increasing its role in regional relations as well as by engaging it in the Asia-Pacific regional order. Therefore, India views its growing relationship with the United States as an important gateway to becoming a great power (Khazri, 1390: 689). Also, the December 2013 meeting of the Singapore Secretary of Defense and the US Secretary of Defense at the Pentagon underscored the expansion of bilateral military cooperation. Singapore is seeking to counter China's widespread economic and social influence by seeking close ties with the United States. Vietnam, which has experienced the bloody war of 1956 to 1973 with the United States, has also renewed its relations with the United States since the emergence of China in July 2011. Only two months later, in September 2011, the two sides signed an agreement to promote bilateral defense cooperation, followed by annual bilateral defense talks. The South Korean-American alliance has been a powerful component of the Asia-Pacific regional order for the past six decades. With China's economic and military power increasing and its role in Asia-Pacific in recent years, the United States has also emphasized Taiwan to pressure China and increase tension in the region to entertain China in regional conflicts and diminish its global role. It has increased (Tabatabai and Ghyasi, 2013: 272). The US government believes that the Chinese state, which has the largest land borders with North Korea, could be the controlling factor of Pyongyang to end the crisis in the region (Swaine, 2017: 6). In pursuit of realistic and pragmatic policy, Trump seeks to capitalize on China's influence in resolving the North Korean nuclear crisis, and to place some of North Korea's containment on China.
Conclusion
China's quest for increased military power and funding has received widespread reactions from major powers as well as its Asian neighbors. In the meantime, the United States, as the only superpower left over from the Cold War era, because of its widespread interests around the world, and especially Asia, more than any other international player in China's rise in economic power and more the military arena is concerned. In this regard, the United States seeks to establish a broad military and security relationship and to increase the presence and conduct of military movements in Asia and to conclude military contracts with Japan, India, South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan as competitors to China and political alliances. A military with Australia and Indonesia as middle powers in the region would isolate the country. In the meantime, even the United States prioritizes the normalization of relations with its longtime enemy, Vietnam, in order to limit China. Another issue that has challenged Washington's policies in East Asia is the North Korean missile crisis, which the US government seeks to address by pressuring China and with Russian cooperation. In this regard, the Washington authorities consider China to be a factor in containment and control of Pyongyang to end the missile crisis in the East Asia region and have been trying to put pressure on Beijing. The end result of a series of US counter-measures against China has so far reduced Chinese economic growth from about 9 percent to 6 percent and increased US economic growth from about 4 percent to 6 percent, which can be concluded that the measures The United States has, in part, inhibited China's unilateral economic-military growth.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • U.S.A
  • China
  • east Asia
  • Regional order
  • Threat balance
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