تبیین نقش عوامل ژئوپلیتیکی بر سیاست خارجی عمان

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه خاتم الانبیاء

2 دانشگاه فرماندهی و ستاد ارتش

چکیده

تبیین نقش عوامل ژئوپلیتیکی بر سیاست خارجی عمان

محسن بیوک ، محمد اکرمی نیا


چکیده
دولت‌ها به‌تبع نیازهای داخلی، موقعیت ژئوپلیتیکی و نیز تحت تأثیر ساختار و عملکرد نظام بین‌المللی، جهت‌گیری‌ها و استراتژی‌های خاصی را به‌منظور تأمین هدف‌ها و منافع ملی خویش برمی‌گزینند. در عرصه خارجی همبستگی و هماهنگی زیادی میان ژئوپلیتیک و الگوی رفتار سیاست خارجی کشورها برقرار است. کشور عمان ازنظر ژئوپلیتیکی در منطقه‌ای متشنج همراه با خصومت‌های سیاسی و تنش‌های خونین احاطه‌شده است و سیاست خارجی آن متفاوت تر از سایر کشورهاست. رفتار عمان در سیاست خارجی الگویی از سیاست خارجی موفق برای کشوری است که با حضور در منطقه‌ی بحران‌زای خاورمیانه از ورود به مناقشات و درگیری‌های فرقه‌ای منطقه و تنش و تقابل در نظام بین‌الملل پرهیز نموده است. این کشور در چارچوب سیاست بی‌طرفی مثبت با حفظ روابط حسنه باقدرت مای منطقه‌ای و بین‌المللی، در کاهش تنش بین کشورهای عربی و غیرعربی مؤثر بوده و در تعاملات خود توانسته بین منافع متعارض همسایگان و قدرت‌های تأثیرگذار، توازن ایجاد نماید.
سؤال اصلی مقاله این است که چه عوامل ژئوپلیتیکی بر سیاست خارجی عمان تأثیرگذارند؟ هدف آن است که با ارائه چارچوبی از الگوی رفتاری عمان در سطح منطقه و بین‌الملل، نقش عوامل ژئوپلیتیکی مؤثر بر سیاست خارجی عمان تبیین شود. در پاسخ به پرسش اصلی مفروض نویسندگان این است که موقعیت جغرافیایی، مذهب اباضیه، ژئوپلیتیک مرز، ضعف نیروهای نظامی، کمبود جمعیت و منابع انرژی و نیاز به سرمایه‌گذاری خارجی بر الگوی رفتاری و نوع سیاست خارجی عمان تأثیرگذار است.
پژوهش حاضر به روش توصیفی – تحلیلی و با تکیه‌بر منابع کتابخانه‌ای انجام‌شده و برای تبیین سیاست خارجی عمان از نظریه بی‌طرفی مثبت استفاده‌شده است.







کلمات کلیدی: عمان، ژئوپلیتیک، سیاست خارجی، بی‌طرفی مثبت، خاورمیانه

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explaining the role of geopolitical factors in Oman's foreign policy

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohsen biuck 1
  • mohammad akraminia 2
1 khatamolanbia university
2 army command and staff university
چکیده [English]

Extensive abstract
Explaining the role of geopolitical factors in Oman's foreign policy
Mohsen Biuck
Mohammad Akraminia



Introduction
Governments choose specific orientations and strategies to meet their national goals and interests, depending on their domestic needs, geopolitical position, and also under the influence and structure of the international system.the political relations and actions of governments in the foreign arena are a function of their geopolitical position .Oman ,despite its presence in the Middle East crisis zone , has a different foreign policy despite its presence in the Middle East crisis. Oman's foreign policy is a model of successful foreign policy for a country with a turbulent presence. The Middle East has avoided entering the region's sectarian strife and tension in the international system. The country has been effective in reducing tensions between Arab and non-Arab countries in a positive neutrality policy by maintaining good relations with influential regional and international powers.in its interactions it has been able to balance the conflicting interests of its neighbors and regional and trans-regional powers.
The main purpose of this article is to answer the question: what geopolitical factors influence Oman's foreign policy? In response to this question, the author assumes that geographical location, Abbasid religion, border geopolitics, weak military forces, lack of population and energy resources, and the need for foreign investment, influence Oman's foreign policy.
The present study is a descriptive-analytical one based on library resources and the "positive neutrality" theory is used to explain Oman's foreign policy.

Methodology
The methodology of the research has a descriptive-analytical nature and a geo-political approach to geography. The fundamentals of data collection and analysis according to the type of research, based on library and documentary method, and using written and important internal and external authoritative works ( Whether it is books, articles, reports, etc.) and electronics (websites and electronic articles).
Result and discussion
the geopolitical boundary of Oman's border with Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and especially with the UAE plays a very important role in its behavioral pattern. The most important geopolitical problem in Oman is that the UAE has split between the northern and southern parts of Oman, and the division of Oman's territory and the lack of independent land between Oman and the Peninsula in the event of a crisis could impede Oman's sovereignty. This is the area. Territorial disruption has made Oman need to establish and expand relations with regional and trans-regional poles in order to maintain territorial security, military operations and control of the Strait of Hormuz. Oman's relatively long sea border and coastal and port potential, especially the east coast, will require a safer refuge for Oman's regional and trans-regional countries such as the United States, Britain and China, as well as Oman's need to invest in these countries in accordance with impartial policies. Was.
Oman has been religiously trying to keep its foreign policy away from religious currents while still maintaining good relations with all countries in the Arab and Islamic world. Oman's followers have mostly built on their interactions with other religions, advocating for unity and proximity to Muslims, seeking a relationship with other countries in a peaceful and intimate relationship, and in most of the sectarian and fundamentalist tensions in the region, preferring to adopt neutrality. Wish for a peaceful way.
despite the enormous budget allocation in the military field, the Oman army is very weak and despite great powers such as Iran, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia it has no significant offensive and deterrence capabilities. The transfer of military bases to world powers and the recruitment of military advisers has led Oman to exercise extreme caution and moderation in its political relations with regional and international powers. In addition, the very small Oman population, which comprises more than one-third of the immigrants, is the single most important security-economic threat that will change Oman's demographic context. The weakness of the population has led its agents to exercise caution and moderation in their foreign policy and ultimately co-operate with the region's most influential neighbors and powers.
The limited and expiring oil resources and high cost of its extraction and Oman's need for gas, as well as the pursuit of a policy of reducing oil dependence and launching large-scale economic projects have led to the need for Oman to regional countries and foreign investment. The size of the investment and the current economic situation reflect the stability achieved by positive neutrality policy over the past five decades.

Conclusion
oman's main goal in domestic and foreign policy is to provide stability,security and economic recovery based on security in the region and peaceful resolution of events.ensuring national interest has made neutrality and diversification of foreign communications an integral part of oman's foreign policy .the basic premise of this type of behavior is based on numerous geopolitical factors that have so far drawn from Oman a picture of calm and stability.The results show that the geopolitical boundaries of Oman's borders with neighboring countries especially the UAE, the geographical location of the Strait of Hormuz and the long coasts of Oman, the religion of ibadiyyah and other regional religions, the weakness of military forces, population shortages and presence Oman's immigrants and non-natives, lack of energy resources, and pursuit of a policy of reducing oil dependency and need for foreign investment affect Oman's foreign policy based on positive neutrality. Investment volume and current economic situation indicate stability based on policy Positive neutrality has been achieved over the past five decades.
It is unclear whether the successors of Qaboos will believe in his engagement and impartiality and can withstand heavy pressure from Arab countries to join their jirga. However, since moderation and positive engagement with all countries in the region and the world has so far yielded positive results for this small Arab country, the successors of Sultan Qaboos are likely to adhere to this and will continue to do so in foreign policy.


Keywords: Oman, Geopolitics, Foreign Policy, Positive Impartiality, Middle East

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Oman
  • Geopolitics
  • Foreign Policy
  • Positive Impartiality
  • Middle East

مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 30 دی 1398
  • تاریخ دریافت: 17 شهریور 1398
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 29 دی 1398
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 30 دی 1398