عنوان مقاله [English]
Nowadays international and local Social, economic and political relationships are bonded and expanded into each other which is known as Globalization process. Researchers consider globalization as a process resulting in intertwining of different relationships across the world, local events are affected by other ones located miles away, and vice versa, local events affecting global ones (Tanzi,2005:44).In fact this process is dialectical; i.e. local events could spread in the opposite direction of their far originating events(Gidens,2004:77). globalization effects on quality of life are considered as a critical issue. Some countries parallel globalization advancement with increasing quality of life of individuals and consider it as an essential part of today's lifecycle, while others seem to be more skeptical in this regard (Montiel,2012:70). Imposing sanction is applied by one or several international countries against other countries to punish them aiming to limit them from certain actions, and persuade them to accept certain norms (Jack and Plano,2010).It can also be considered as governments' withdrawal or deliberate threat for withdrawal from establishing relationships in different sectors(Ataev CEU,2013:5).Since 1990S,sanctions have extended connection of different locations and changed universal globalization rate. It is believed that sanctions are a preferable and less costier alternative to military actions(Lopez and Cortright,1995:18).
After Islamic Revolution, particularly since 2012, Iran was sanctioned for many different reasons by USA and European countries including Iran's nuclear program to force their activities to comply with International Atomic Energy Agency protocols, which were the heaviest sanctions in the history of mankind targeting all society stratums of Iran. Thus, this study tried to explore nuclear sanctions impact on urban quality of life from globalization retrospect using available theories. In this study quality of life indices were measured in period that Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015 was not effective (in sanctioned period) for Amol and the results were compared to quality of life indices of Amol before sanctions were initiated (2012) to evaluate the impact of international policies on the medium sized cities and identify causes of people discontent, life priorities, how political, social and economic factors would impact quality of life of residents of the city.
This is a descriptive-analytic research and data were collected via a questionnaire.In this study,first 20 important economic, social and political events in Amol city were presented to 30 experts of this town in form of cross-impact matrix through investigating credible resources, and the resulted data were analyzed through the MICMAC software.The empirical data of the study were derived from a survey in Amol, the first part of which was carried out prior to the enactment of comprehensive sanctions in 2012(Khademi,2012),and the second part was conducted when the comprehensive sanctions came in effect in 2017.Respondents were heads of households in Amol. In this regard, questionnaires were distributed based on random sampling quota among a sample of 350 households in the first phase and then among the same number of households (n=350) in the same neighborhoods in the second phase of the study. At the city scale, the study areas were selected among 9 urban districts using Cochran and random sampling method. To test the reliability, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used. In both phases of the study, the coefficient was higher than 0.8, which indicated the internal consistency of the questionnaire.
Results and Discussion
Results of MICMAC revealed that the "Nuclear sanctions" factor can be recognized as the only factor from which the quality of life of Amol residents during this 4-year period (2012-2017) was highly affected, and other factors were influenced by this one. The influence of other factors on each other was highly limited and weak.
Another results this study revealed that indicators of quality of life in Amol during sanctions including social factors (mean=2.8),environmental factors(mean=2.7) and economic (mean=2.4) factors were all below average. On the contrary an analysis of the quality of life in the city of Amol in 2012 exhibited that social (mean=3.3), environmental (mean=3.2) and economic (mean=3.1) factors were above average. Generally,it can be argued that mean quality of life in the studied city was 2.6 in 2017 and 3.2 in 2017. The results of T-test in SPSS revealed that quality of life in these two periods was significantly different. In this context and based on mean values of quality of life, it can be concluded that the effect of sanctions on economic indicator was greater than the two other indicators, followed by social factors and finally physical and environmental indicators. On one hand,according to the findings of the study, sanctions had a tremendous effect on "gender" factor,leading to heightened gap and inequality between men and women, to the extent that it was found to be the most important individual variable undergoing significant changes during this period.On the other hand, results showed that in 2017, concerns about long-term adverse effects of sanctions had the greatest effect on indicators of quality of life.
According to the selection criteria in this study, it can be argued that besides having positive and negative impacts on the quality of life of residents under normal circumstances, globalization and growing interdependence of countries and urban areas, can significantly threaten the interests of the citizens even in medium-sized cities, at critical moments of history.This is especially true for countries and cities that are more susceptible to regional and international troubles due to their specific policies and approaches. Therefore, it seems that regulating relations between cities and countries in the globalization process, is essential to preserve and improve the quality of life of urban resident especially when there is an imbalance in such a relationship and its subsequent benefits. Otherwise, residents of these cities will continue to perceive globalization as a threat.
Keywords: Globalization, Nuclear Sanction, Urban quality of life, Amol City
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