عنوان مقاله [English]
Attachment to place is formed by cognitive, emotional, and functional interactions between individuals, groups, and socio-social locations over time. Sometimes this placement goes beyond the level of individual cognitive emotion experiences and extends through the collective collective feeling for a wider spatial range to the level of a nation. This study aimed to investigate the impact of environmental quality on the amount of attachment to a place in urban areas. Indicators and criteria for measuring attachment to place include socio-semantic, physical-functional, contextual-structural, and perceptual-emotional components. The central square of Hamedan has been selected as a case study for its exceptional spatial, historical and social characteristics. The research method of this research is based on structural equation model and correlation coefficient. Questionnaire and observation tools were used. The sample size was about 400 people selected by Cochran formula. The results show that physical, social and semantic factors have the greatest impact on the attachment to the place in urban areas from the perspective of users and citizens. Among the physical-spatial factors, "the feeling of being confined in the field space" and of the social-semantic factors, "the level of interaction and social interactions" had the most impact on the attachment to the field space, as well as in the perceptual-emotional factors, "Role of the Square as a Perceptual Sign of the City" and regarding contextual - structural factors, "Position and placement of the field in relation to the surrounding texture", finally on functional factors, "Variety of existing uses" had the greatest impact on attachment to the place. In the field studied from the perspective of citizens.
In order to describe people's relation to place, researchers have used a number of terms such as: place identity, attachment to place, attachment to place, and the concept of place (Low and Altman 1998: 28). Urban spaces are a set of behavioral residences that are interconnected in a complex and nested order (Golrukh, 2012: 59). This means that the social and physical dimensions of the city have a dynamic relationship with each other. In fact, urban space consists of both social and physical spaces (MadaniPour, 2000: 48). Citizens' perception of a desirable location and its references to the constituent elements of a place have a direct relationship with their objective and subjective needs that they consider appropriate for this or that element in order to maintain that space (Behzadfar et al, 2010). When the relationship between man and the environment is based on human experience, the environment becomes a place. This relationship means that place is a part of the environmental experience, together with the convergence of the influences and behaviors of the people living with them (Pretty ,2003: 275).
In addition, this relationship maintains its spatial-social excellence through an internal process of interacting with its environment and maintaining its harmony and identity. The spatio-functional complexities of human-made environments indicate that their spatio-social constructs are programmed (Jelv Electric, 2008: 25).
The statistical population of the study was Hamedan people. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect the research data. This questionnaire consists of 59 Likert-type items that measure 5 environmental quality factors related to place attachment. The Place Attachment Questionnaire was developed in several steps. Initially, the first sections of this questionnaire were written and edited both conceptually and comprehensively. In the next step, these items were examined by the technical experts and their validity and relevance to the research variables were confirmed. According to Cochran's formula and according to the population of Hamadan, in the pilot phase, a questionnaire was administered to a sample of 400 people and its inappropriate items were corrected and its psychometric properties were calculated. In the pilot phase, the questionnaire had enough psychometric properties and it showed that the questionnaire was suitable for using psychometric properties. Cronbach's alpha reliability was 0.893. Which is quite suitable for a research questionnaire. For the semantic and social subscales of ".85", physical ".86", functional ".69", contextual and ".76", emotional and perceptual ".78." All of which are statistically acceptable and significant.
Results and discussion
The results of this study showed that although there is a positive and significant correlation between contextual and structural factors, emotional, physical, and functional with attachment to urban fields, there is a stronger and stronger correlation between semantic and social factors with attachment to urban fields. Can be seen. Among the physical factors, the degree of confinement in the space "0.92" and the attractiveness and identity of the walls in the space of the central square "0.8", has the highest priority from the perspective of users in terms of attachment to urban areas, especially historical and historical squares. Social shows. Among the social and semantic factors, the level of social interactions and interactions in the field of "0.91", the importance and impact of the field in different areas for citizens "0.82" and the amount of reminiscences of past memories "0.8", It has the highest priority.
Among the perceptual and emotional factors, the role of urban squares as a hub and the role of squares as a '95 /.' Urban sign, as well as the diverse presence of different segments of people in the urban squares in terms of age, sex, Cultural, occupational and ... "/ 83." Plays an important role in people's attachment to urban areas. Also regarding the contextual and structural factors, the location and the interconnection of the field with the surrounding texture of "0.91", with the spatial cohesion in the form and architecture of the "0.87" metropolitan area, have the highest priority in attachment, Finally, in terms of functional factors, the variety of available uses ".94", the presence of attractive activities ".9" and the rate of pausing and stopping people in terms of the ".88" mental retention, an important role in maintaining attachment in The field has.
Attachment to place, sense of place, urban squares, central square of Hamedan.
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