عنوان مقاله [English]
In recent decades the urban population growth and then hit the top of residing in urban areas of
the world, especially in developing countries, make problems in cities such as Overcrowding
and traffic problems like environmental pollution resulting from excessive personal cars, health
problems, lack of vitality. In other words, the growth of personal transport and increase the
number of trips are the main causes of instability in urban environments. The movement
appeared in the late twentieth century were created to solve this problem and increase the
sustainability of cities and the proposed principles were trying to push the society in the better
way. New Urbanism movement in this period is one of the approaches that two patterns “based
on the development of public transport” and “Traditional Neighborhood Development” has been
derived from this approach. Pattern “based on the development of public transport” approach
with emphasis on improving public transport systems and tailor neighborhoods to walk is to
reduce the use of private cars. The pattern in recent decades in many cities in the world with the
goals of increasing the quality of new urban developments and improve the status quo is being
Qazvin as one of the ancient cities of Iran after the revolution has population growth. This
increase affects physical growth of urban population growth have been many post-revolutionary
period. The city has three urban areas. Since the physical growth of Qazvin not match the
expansion of public transport infrastructure in various fields is causing problems. In this study,
the criteria for transit-oriented development in the third district of Qazvin and the region in
terms of this approach have been identified. Then, the advantages and disadvantages of the
region to provide vision and strategies to improve the region and achieve development based on
public transport have been paid.The movement appeared in the late twentieth century were created to solve this problem and increase the sustainability of cities and the proposed principles were trying to push the society in the better way. New Urbanism as a movement in design and urban planning in this period is one of these approaches. This approach first emerged in the 1980s in the United States of America. In this decade, a large number of American architects and urbanists such as Crier, Christopher Alexander and others criticized the burnout urban centers, local community's dependent on the automobile sector and use of private car in high level. These architects and urbanists are Prepared the emergence fields of New Urbanism. New Urbanism emerged as one of the approaches towards sustainable development and smart growth. This movement has two patterns. These patterns are "Transit Oriented Development" that based on the development of public transport and "Traditional Neighborhood Development". Traditional neighborhood development pattern is based about new suburban residential development with narrow streets, public spaces and public facilities that encourage people to walk to the nearest public transportation station. Transit Oriented Development pattern that based on the development of public transport approach emphasizes on improving public transport systems and tailor neighborhoods to walk is to reduce the use of private cars. In the other words this pattern seeks to create healthy communities, compact and pedestrian-oriented and high-quality public transport is around stations. This approach aims to promote quality of life for residents without dependence on the private car. Transit Oriented Development includes a range of programming at regional and local level. The main body of this approach consists of wide area network of heavy and light transport lines, Bus Rapid Transport and Metro lines. The transport network has a significant role in the transmission and displacement of populations and local and regional services. Along the transport route-based Transit Oriented Development land uses are developed. For development based on Transit Oriented Development approach being close to transport routes is not enough. Some issues like accessibility to parking and building density is important. This approach coordinates transportation and land use with each other in the process of planning and urban design and in this way creates sustainable and friendly-man society.
The positive effects of economic, physical and environmental of this model for cities have prompted managers to make their towns sync with the principles of this development. Reducing automobile dependency and parking demand, increasing use of public transport systems, promoting walkability of neighborhoods, increasing mixed use areas, creating complex and attractive pedestrian, reducing air pollution caused by cars, reducing noise pollution, and etc. are the positive effects of this development. Transit Oriented Development is one of the approaches that many cities are trying to synchronize itself with the principles of this model. Studies and designs on many cities around the world to achieve this development is done. In Iran, this study was conducted on a limited basis. Some researchers have studied Transit Oriented Development principles in local scale. But surveying indicators of this approach in region scale was not mentioned in Iranian's studies. This pattern is useful for most of the cities. Historical cities because of its historical context and historical vacant lots within the area are good options for this development.
Qazvin as one of the ancient cities of Iran after the revolution has population growth. This increase affects physical growth of urban population growth have been many post-revolutionary periods. This city has three urban areas. Region one is placed in southern area. Region three is placed in the northernmost area. And region number two is placed between region number one and region number three. Since the physical growth of Qazvin not match the expansion of public transport infrastructure in various fields is causing problems. In this study, the criteria for transit-oriented development in the third district of Qazvin and the region in terms of this approach have been identified. Then, the advantages and disadvantages of the region to provide vision and strategies to improve the region and achieve development based on public transport have been paid.
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