تبیین نظری بسترها و زمینه ‏های روابط ژئوپلیتیک و ارائة مدل پیشنهادی

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

2 استادیار گروه جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

3 استاد گروه جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش الگویابی مهم‏ترین بسترها و زمینه‏های روابط ژئوپلیتیک میان واحدهای سیاسی است. روابط ژئوپلیتیک روابط میان واحدهای سیاسی در مقیاس‏های ملی، منطقه‏ای، و جهانی است. بیشتر مفاهیم در رابطه با روابط ژئوپلیتیک معمولاً فقط به ارائة تعریف بسنده کرده‏اند و مشکل یافتن الگوهایی است تا معنای کیفی به روابط ژئوپلیتیکی بدهد. بدین منظور، نخست باید مجموعه‏ای از عوامل و مؤلفه‏ها را تعریف کرد که به روابط ژئوپلیتیکی منجر می‏شود. شناسایی مهم‏ترین بسترها و زمینه‏های روابط ژئوپلیتیکی در این پژوهش بر اساس مطالعة نظریه‏ها و رویکردهایی است که نظریه‏پردازان و اندیشمندان جغرافیای سیاسی، ژئوپلیتیک، علوم سیاسی، روابط بین‏الملل، و محیط ‏زیست ارائه کرده‏اند. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش بر اساس هدف نظری و بر اساس ماهیت توصیفی‏- تحلیلی است. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان می‏دهد که مهم‏ترین بسترها و زمینه‏های روابط ژئوپلیتیک میان کشورها بر اساس مطالعة نظریه‏ها و رویکرد‏ها در چهار بُعد هیدروپلیتیک، ژئوپلیتیک، ژئواکونومیک، و ژئوکالچر قرار دارد. در این میان بسترها و زمینه‏های هیدروپلیتیک شامل «رودخانه‏های بین‏المللی»، «مرزهای دریایی مشترک»، و «عامل زیست‏محیطی» بسترها و زمینه‏های ژئوپلیتیک شامل «مسائل سرزمینی»، «موقعیت جغرافیایی»، «هژمونی منطقه‏ای»، «رویکرد امنیتی»، «وزن ژئوپلیتیکی»، «پیمان‏ها و ائتلاف‏ها»، «کدهای ژئوپلیتیک»، و «همسایگی و تعداد همسایگان» است. بسترها و زمینه‏های ژئواکونومیک شامل «منابع زیرزمینی و فسیلی» و «تنگه‏های بین‏المللی»  بوده و بسترها و زمینه‏های ژئوکالچر نیز شامل «تعدد گروه‏های قومی در کشورهای همجوار»، «پیوند مذهبی با کشورهای پیرامونی»، «عامل تاریخی و تمدنی»، و «عامل ایدئولوژیک‏گرایی» است. هر کدام از این مؤلفه‏ها در چندین نظریه و رویکرد مورد تأکید قرار گرفته‏اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Theoretical Specification of Aspects of Geopolitical Relations and a Proposed Model

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Mousavi 1
  • Bahador Zarei 2
  • Zahra Pishgahifard 3
  • Marjan Badiee Azandehie 2
  • Mahmood Vasegh 2
1 univercity of tehran
2 university of tehran
3 University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Geopolitical relations are relationships between states and countries based on geographical contexts. In fact, the difference between geopolitical relations and political relations is the geographical background of geopolitical relations. In geopolitical relations, contexts are relationships based on geographical components and contexts. The purpose of this study is to model the most important geopolitical contexts. The research method in this study is based on theoretical purpose and descriptive-analytical nature. The most important geopolitical contexts were identified based on the study of nineteen theories and approaches presented by theorists and scholars of political geography, geopolitics, political science, international relations, and the environment. Then, the most important contexts and areas of geopolitical relations are presented in five dimensions of "interaction, opposition, competition, influence and domination" and finally a model is proposed for the contexts and fields of geopolitical relations.
Introduction
The results show that the most important geopolitical contexts and fields include geo-cultural contexts (ethnic groups in neighboring countries, religious affiliation with peripheral countries, historical and civilization factor, ideological factor), contexts and fields of Geopolitics (territorial issues, geographic location, regional hegemony, security approach, geopolitical weight, alliances, regional geopolitical structure, geopolitical codes, neighborhoods and the number of neighbors), geo-economic contexts (Underground and fossil resources, international straits),fields and contexts of hydro-politics ( International rivers, common maritime boundaries and environmental factors).
One of the most important issues in geopolitics is "geopolitical relations". A geopolitical relation is the study and analysis of the effects of geographical components on the relations between states and international relations.
Geopolitical relations are relationships between states and countries based on geographical contexts. In fact, the difference between geopolitical relations and political relations is the geographical background of geopolitical relations. In geopolitical relations, contexts are relationships based on geographical components and contexts.
In general, geopolitical relations are those that are established between states and governments and political actors based on a combination of factors of politics, power and geography. Therefore, in order to understand the specific phenomena that occur in geopolitical relations between countries, geographical factors need to be taken into account. Geography plays a pivotal role in geopolitical relations and provides the impetus for shaping the political will of the relationship as well as influencing the level of actor power (Hafez Nia, 2006, 362). On the other hand, dominant ways of behavior between states, because of various types of relationships, vary in the range of patterns including 'interaction', 'domination', 'influence' and 'competition' and 'confrontation'. Today, geopolitics, geopolitical relations and their analysis are mostly done at the transnational scale.
Therefore, the study of the pattern of geopolitical relations on three international, regional and global scales can be discussed. But what matters most is the context and of geopolitical relations. In this research, the most important contexts of geopolitical relations are studied based on the study of theories and approaches and finally the contexts for the dimensions of geopolitical relations as well as the proposed model for the fields of geopolitical relations between countries are presented.
Methodology
This research seeks to theoretically explain the contexts and fields of geopolitical relations between countries. From Newman's point of view, by referring to more general ideas and abstract principles in terms of cause and effect, theoretical explanations describe why a particular event occurs.
The purpose of this study is to model the most important geopolitical contexts. The research method in this study is based on theoretical purpose and descriptive-analytical nature.
In terms of the purpose, this research is basic. In basic research, the purpose is to discover the facts and to understand the phenomena that lead to the increasing human knowledge. In this research, identifying the components and areas that influence its geopolitical relations is known as a basic research. The components and contexts were identified based on the review of nineteen theories and approaches presented by theorists and scholars of political geography, geopolitics, political science, international relations, and the environment. Research method was descriptive-analytic and the data were collected through library resources. The data were also analyzed qualitatively. Qualitative research is introspective, political, subjective - reflective - interpretive, theory generating and human-centered. The main objective of the study is to explore the conceptual factors (backgrounds and contexts) that influence the formation of geopolitical relationships.
Results and discussion
On one hand, some theories and approaches have emphasized on one component in geopolitical formation and relationships, such as Huntington's Clash of Civilizations , Geo-economy's (Edward Lutwac's) theory, Muhammad Khatami's Civilization's Dialogue, and the theory of Louise Richardson.
Some theories and approaches included several components, such as: Mackinder's Heartland Theory, Spykman's Rimland Theory, ‎Alfred Thayer Mahan's Maritime Power, Wallerstein's World System Theory, " Theory of Power Systems (Brzezinski), Kaplan's theory of the Chaos of the Future, Peter Hagget's Theory, Thomas Homer Dixon's Theory, Regional Conflict Theory (Jeffrey Camp and David Harvey), Theory of Conflict (John Robert Prescott), and the Approach to Geopolitical Conflict (John Collins).
The study of theories and approaches shows that each of the theories emphasizes on one or more of the geopolitical, geo-economic, hydro-politics, and geo-cultural components, and no theory encompasses all four components together.
Relations between countries took different forms along the temporal dimensions and geographical characteristics of countries. The dimensions of geopolitical relations between countries vary in terms of interaction, competition, domination, influence and opposition.
Conclusion
The results show that the most important geopolitical contexts and fields include geo-cultural contexts (ethnic groups in neighboring countries, religious affiliation with peripheral countries, historical and civilization factor, ideological factor), contexts and fields of Geopolitics (territorial issues, geographic location, regional hegemony, security approach, geopolitical weight, alliances, regional geopolitical structure, geopolitical codes, neighborhoods and the number of neighbors), geo-economic contexts (Underground and fossil resources, international straits),fields and contexts of hydro-politics ( International rivers, common maritime boundaries and environmental factors).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • geopolitical relations
  • geo culture
  • Geoeconomics
  • Hydropolitics
  • Geopolitics
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