عنوان مقاله [English]
In geographic sciences, production of geographical space by political decision maker has different interpretation in different philosophical schools. Phenomenology school as one of the trans - positivism school has significant role in geographic studies, especially in studying the relationship between politics and space. Phenomenology is one of the modernism critics and it denies any distinction between mentality and space. In phenomenology, the question of "being in the world" is raised through attention to human agency and one's ability to experience and cognize. In phenomenology, man understands the meaning of things, not only with connection to things, but also in relation to subjective perception of things. In this regard, production of space in Phenomenology of Hermeneutics school could be affects from mentality of the political decision maker. Taking consider this approach is effective for understanding the relationship between politics and geographical space. Because the decision maker's mindset model plays an important role in prioritizing and regulating relationships and activities in geographic space. In this research has presented a new approach to explain the political actor’s performance for making the geographical space in the framework of phenomenology of Hermeneutics school.
This research has fundamental approaches in the philosophy of political geography and for compilation of information has been referred to valid document and bibliography. In this research has been used the descriptive and analytical approaches. in first step, was defined the Phenomenology cognition school. Then, the relationship between political decision- maker mentality and its effects on space has been accorded with characteristics of this school.
Results and discussion
The most important phenomenological functions for cognition the function of political decision - maker over geographical space are as follows:
1- Decision makers’ priorities in a distinct area, including in one country have very effective role for production of geographical space. because, the spatial processes will be created in accordance with the political decision-maker perceptions and mentality, especially in centralized state. So, common destiny will be produced in accordance with the cognitive patterns of decision maker's mindset in a territory and part of the spatial processes arising from their mental contexts, cultures and imagination. In other word, the meaning of geographical space cannot be realized without the creation of perceptual sharing and the origin the mental sharing production is formed by the power elite and political decision makers. therefore, it is impossible to separate human perceptions from their life world, which primarily has political-historical nature. Each political system is shaped by the power elite subjective priorities, which rewards the individual’s behavior for preservation that value and punish the opposing behaviors. In hermeneutic phenomenology, the ontological nature of the phenomenon that can be influenced by external constitutive forces. In this regard, society are associated and have historical dependence on them. these systems of rewards and penalties deriving from the mentality of political elites leads the harmonious behaviors in individuals and the preservation of social order. Therefore, the realization of the human existence depends on the conditions that part of it created by decision maker’s states and mental patterns.
2- The mental image and behavioral context of each person about geographical space depends on education, learning and memories of that person. in other word, the formation of mental image and personal geography, influences from suffering, hope, age, sex, and life experience of a person. In this regard, political decision-making priorities who play a significant role in changing geographical space, are fully influenced by their intuitive background. Even geopolitical interactions are formed on the basis of the "inter-religiousness" of the political priorities of the decision-makers. So that, the priorities of politicians, especially in the individualized centralized apparatus, will have a significant impact on space and settlement changing. Because political elites in many cases, have a trans structural position and with control of social system, they Follow up their mental goals. On the other hand, the political decision makers’ interpretations also are not inconsistent. The task of hermeneutic interpretation must be to critically examine this "foresight" of the world and the phenomena faced by political actors.
3- Methodologically, in the hermeneutic phenomenology the positivism general principles were rejected and space is considered in contrast of abstract and absolute phenomenon. Thus, the geographical space cognition is related to political decision- maker’s mentality. Because the political elite have the ability to manage the part of perception and excitement process in individuals. In addition, ruling politicians are not only as economic factor, but also they seek to represent their identity and mind with effecting on the geographical space construction. So, in phenomenology framework, for studying the relation between politics and geographical space quantitative measurements is not suitable method.
Space organization will arise by the allocation and distribution of spatial phenomena, such as population, activity, resources, etc., which be done by the sovereignty to establish spatial justice. Obviously, the ruling actors may or may not represent the majority of the population in the community, but their mental recognition is one of the sources of spatial structures change. Obviously, part of this process is based on the emotional and perceptual logic of political decision maker with the control of spatial processes, conduct the structures of process. political geography interpretation in the context of hermeneutic phenomenology leads the researcher to understand the behavior of political decision makers in different eras. It can be concluded the cultures and cognitive frameworks of the ruling politicians lead the recognition of spatial phenomena for them and at the same time, put the individuals function into a specific section of time and destiny. Therefore, the ruling political actors’ subjective cognition is very determinative in explaining space and in creating spatial processes. therefore, Phenomenology seeks to gain the subjective meanings of individuals and societies through the methods of observation, interview and referral to social and psychological monographs.